Kalabagh Dam

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Kalabagh Dam
Kalabagh Dam is located in Pakistan
Kalabagh Dam
Location of Kalabagh Dam in Pakistan
Official name کالا باغ ڈيم
Country Pakistan
Location Kalabagh, Mianwali District
Coordinates 32°57′23″N 071°36′49″E / 32.95639°N 71.61361°E / 32.95639; 71.61361Coordinates: 32°57′23″N 071°36′49″E / 32.95639°N 71.61361°E / 32.95639; 71.61361
Status Proposed
Dam and spillways
Type of dam Earthfill dam (zoned fill embankment with clay core)
Impounds Indus River
Height 79 m (259 ft)
Length 3,350 m (10,991 ft)
Reservoir
Active capacity 7.52 km3 (6,100,000 acre⋅ft)
Inactive capacity 9.7 km3 (7,900,000 acre⋅ft)
Catchment area 110,500 sq mi (286,000 km2)
Power Station
Hydraulic head 170 ft (52 m)
Turbines 12 x 300 MW
Installed capacity 3,600 MW (max. planned)
Annual generation 11,400 GWh

The Kalabagh Dam (Urdu: کالا باغ ڈيم‎), is a proposed hydroelectric dam on the Indus River at Kalabagh in the Mianwali District, Punjab, Pakistan. Intensely debated, if constructed the dam would have 3,600 megawatts (4,800,000 hp) of electricity generation capacity; however the greater benefits would be to tackle the "severe water crises" in the country[1] Pakistan Economy Watch has demanded a national debate on the KBD issue.[2][3][4][5][6]

History[edit]

After the construction of Tarbela Dam, Kalabagh became the highest priority dam project.[7] In 1979, the government obtained a grant of $25 million from the UNDP for its preparation, detailed design and feasibility. Pakistan first approached the Soviet Union for financing assistance, but due to strained relations with Afghanistan (a Soviet ally), this request was denied. The government then approached the World Bank, which agreed to finance the project. At this point in Pakistan's history, previous dam projects such as Mangla (under Ayub Khan) and Tarbela (under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto) never faced any opposition.[8] Even Kalabagh was approved by the Central Development Working Party, without dissent.[7]

The issue of Kalabagh started to become politicized after the execution of the former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a highly popular leader from the downstream province of Sindh.[8] Adding to the controversy, was the feud between Zia-ul-Haq and his own NWFP governor Fazle Haq, which eventually dragged in the Awami National Party into the opposing camp. Due to certain violations of the Indus Accord by the Punjab province, reservations in Sindh grew against the project, whose population and political leaders now painted it as a conspiracy.

Despite the political roadblocks, the World Bank and foreign consultants continued their work on Kalabagh, over a period of ten years, up to 1986 when the project was finally put on hold.[9] The suspicions of the Sindhis grew after Benazir Bhutto's government was dismissed in favor of Nawaz Sharif (from Punjab.) There is debate on whether Benazir favored the Kalabagh project.[10] Pir Pagar has claimed the dam was originally conceived by her father, and that Benazir had allocated funds for it. Others like Sharjeel Memon have claimed Benazir was against its construction.

In December 2004, Pervez Musharraf announced that he would re-initiate the Kalabagh project to serve the larger interest of Pakistan. However, on 26 May 2008, the Federal Minister for Water and Power of Pakistan, Raja Pervez Ashraf, said that the "Kalabagh Dam would not be constructed" and that the project had been cancelled due to "opposition from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and other stakeholders, the project was no longer feasible".[11] In 2010 after the worst floods in Pakistani history, the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Yousaf Raza Gilani, stated flood damage would be minimised if the Kalabagh Dam were built.[12]

Arguments Supporting Construction[edit]

A study funded by NUST University in 2014, concluded that building Kalabagh would offer the following benefits: (1) Annual savings of $4 billion in energy costs (2) Saving Rs. 132 billion due to irrigation benefits and (3) Prevent flood-loss damage, such as the $45 billion loss suffered in recent floods at the time the study was published.[13] The study estimated that the overall benefits of Kalabagh would provide Rs. 20 billion every year, and thus the cost of construction would be repaid within 8–9 years. Moreover, according to the study, the negative consequences of not building Kalabagh are as follows: (1) Economic destabilization due to food shortage, (2) "Serious drop" in agricultural production, (3) Rise in inter-provincial disputes over water, (4) Additional cost of importing energy, (5) Prohibitive cost of electricity for the average consumer and (6) Effects on industry and agriculture due to rising electricity costs.

Bashir A. Malik, former chief technical advisor to the United Nations and World Bank, said, "Sindh and Pakhtunkhwah would become drought areas in the years to come if Kalabagh Dam was not built."[14] At the same time, former KP Chief Minister Shamsul Mulk has stated that the "Kalabagh Dam would be helpful in erasing poverty from Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, as it would irrigate 800,000 acres of cultivable land that is located 100–150 feet above the level of River Indus."[15] The Kalabagh Dam would provide 6.5 million acre feet of water to cultivate seven million acres of currently barren land in addition to the 3,600 megawatts (4,800,000 hp) of electricity it would provide.[16] In response to the push towards side-lining Kalabagh altogether in favour of the rival Basha Dam project, Engineer Anwer Khurshid stated that "Basha Dam is no substitute for Kalabagh Dam, not because of its altitude, which is high enough, but because no irrigation canals can be taken out from it because of the hilly terrain."[17][18]

Experts who supported the construction of the Kalabagh Dam at the 2012 "Save Water Save Pakistan" Forum included: Dr Salman Shah, former Finance Minister of Pakistan; Abdul Majeed Khan, TECH Society president; Shafqat Masood, former IRSA chairman; Qayyum Nizami, former Minister of State; Prof Abdul Qayyum Qureshi, former Vice-Chancellor of Islamia University, Bahawalpur; Dr Muhammad Sadiq, agricultural scientist; M Saeed Khan, former GM of Kalabagh Dam Project; Engr. Mahmudur Rehman Chughtai, Mansoor Ahmed, former MD of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Foundation, M. Zubair Sheikh and Jameel Gishkori, among others.[19] The participants of Save Water Save Pakistan demanded the construction of five dams, including the Munda Dam, Kurram Tangi Dam, Akhori Dam and the Kalabagh Dam, at by 2025 at the latest to store water and generate electricity to meet demand.

Initially when the project was being conceived, engineering studies conducted by an independent Panel of Experts were also constituted by the World Bank, to progressively review the consultants work and to advise them.[20] Members of this panel were eminent world experts and were drawn from different countries. Additional specialists were invited for giving their views on selected topics, where needed. An independent review panel was also constituted by the Government of Pakistan, consisting of eminent Pakistani engineers to review the Project Planning Report. Among them were Engr. Manzoor Ahmed Sheikh, Engr. Asghar Ali Abidi and Engr. Shah Nawaz Khan. This panel also agreed with the conclusions of the Report and supported its recommendations.

Opposition to Kalabagh[edit]

Kalabagh dam is opposed by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa based political parties such as ANP and JUI(F).[21][22][23] and Sindh.[24][25] The government from time to time tries to form a consensus on the issue.[26] The former leader of the opposition in the National Assembly Syed Khurshid Ahmed Shah showed objection to the site of Kalabagh Dam and said its a threat to small provinces.[27] The former Chief Minister of KPK Pervez Khattak said that the KBD is against the interests of KP.[28] Awami National Party has opposed the construction and site of KBD.[29] Sustainable Development Policy Institute, an NGO, published a case study on Kalabagh dam in 1999, mainly arguing against the environmental and displacement impact of building large dams.[30] Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM) former chief Altaf Hussain conditionally supported the Kalabagh dam and said that government should address the reservations of Sindhis before its construction[31][32][33][34]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Development: Engineering design of Kalabagh dam completed". The Express Tribune. APP. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 
  2. ^ "PEW demands national debate on Kalabagh Dam". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  3. ^ "Kalabagh Dam - Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  4. ^ Mariam Khan (30 November 2014). "Kalabagh Dam - A Pivotal Need for Pakistan?". HuffPost. TheHuffingtonPost Inc. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "Kalabagh Dam Conflict in Pakistan - ECC Factbook". 11 March 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  6. ^ "Understanding the Kalabagh dam – Spearhead Research – Pakistan". spearheadresearch.org. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  7. ^ a b "DAWN - Editorial; February 24, 2006". DAWN.COM. 2006-02-24. Retrieved 2018-07-30. 
  8. ^ a b Newspaper, From the (2011-06-18). "Kalabagh dam – another view". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2018-07-31. 
  9. ^ "Who stopped Kalabagh Dam?". The Nation. 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2018-07-31. 
  10. ^ "Benazir Bhutto was against Kalabagh Dam: Sharjeel | The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. 2012-11-21. Retrieved 2018-07-30. 
  11. ^ Kalabagh Dam shelved forever. Nation.com.pk (27 May 2008). Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  12. ^ Leading News Resource of Pakistan. Daily Times (10 August 2010). Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  13. ^ Khan, Muhammad; Jamil, S.M.; Ali, L; Akhtar, Kiran; Javaid, Muhammad (1 January 2014). "Feasibility study of Kalabagh dam Pakistan". Life Science Journal. 11: 458–470. Retrieved 22 June 2018 – via ResearchGate. 
  14. ^ Malik, Bashir (10 October 2011). "India behind Kalabagh Dam opposition: water expert". The News International. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  15. ^ Mulk, Shamsul (22 May 2012). "Need for early construction of Kalabagh Dam stressed". The News International. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  16. ^ "Need for Kalabagh Dam". The Nation. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  17. ^ ANWER, KHURSHID (1 July 2012). "CCI approves Kalabagh Dam". The Nation. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  18. ^ "Fact Urdu : : : : Kala Bagh Dam". fact.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  19. ^ "Experts for construction of dams". The News International. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 11 July 2012. 
  20. ^ "THE ISSUE OF KALABAGH DAM?". www.pakistaneconomist.com. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  21. ^ Report, Bureau (16 October 2015). "Jamaat declares Kalabagh dam 'very dangerous'". Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  22. ^ "KP Assembly likely to pass anti-KBD resolution sans hiccups". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  23. ^ "'Dead KBD horse' cannot be given life, says KP minister". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  24. ^ "Shaw Communications". members.shaw.ca. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  25. ^ "Sindh Assembly rejects LHC's Kalabagh Dam ruling". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  26. ^ "Controversial topic: All parties urged to agree on Kalabagh dam - The Express Tribune". 25 July 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  27. ^ INP (14 October 2015). "Kalabagh Dam a threat to small provinces, says Khurshid Shah". Pakistan Today. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  28. ^ "Khattak says Kalabagh Dam against KP interest - Daily Times". 18 December 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  29. ^ "Pukhtunkhwa's Case Against Kalabagh Dam – Awami National Party". awaminationalparty.org. Retrieved 22 June 2018. 
  30. ^ https://www.sdpi.org/publications/files/W48-The%20Case%20Against%20Kalabagh%20Dam.pdf
  31. ^ "MQM's up for Kalabagh Dam! Are you?". Pakistan Today. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  32. ^ http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/2040/1/1959.htm
  33. ^ "Construction of Kala Bagh Dam is the need of hour: Altaf Hussain". The News Tribe © Copyright 2016, All Rights Reserved. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2016. 
  34. ^ http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/csas/PDF/1_V28_1_2013.pdf

External links[edit]