Keaveney is an Irish surname, which is an anglicized form of the Gaelic Ó Géibheannaigh, meaning "descendant of Géibheannach". Géibheannach means "fettered". Alternative spellings include Keaveny, Keveney, Keavney, and Kiveney. Related names include Caveney, Kaney, Kevan, Kevany, Kenney, Kenny, Geaveny, Geany, Guiney and O'Guiney.
The O Geibheannaigh sept came from County Galway. A sept or clan was a collective term describing a group of persons whose immediate ancestors bore a common surname and inhabited the same territory. This was a sept of the Ui Maine (Hymany) descended from Geibhennach, son of Aedh, Chief of Hymany. Geibhennach was slain in battle in 971 at Keshcorran, Co. Sligo. The Hymany chieftains ruled much of East Galway and South Roscommon. The Irish language meaning of Géibheannach is "hostage" or "captive" probably indicating that Aedh's son had been taken hostage by enemies at an earlier stage. The multiplicity of Keaveney surname variations is explained by regional Gaelic dialects and the pronunciation or not of the "v" sounding "ibh" in O Geibheannaigh giving O Geannaigh which in turn sounds like Ganey or Kaney.
- Anna Keaveney (1949–2004), British actress
- Cecilia Keaveney (born 1968), Irish politician
- Colm Keaveney (born 1971), Irish politician
- Jimmy Keaveney (born 1945), Irish football player
- Joseph Keaveny (born 1955), American politician
- Paddy Keaveney (1929–1995), Irish politician
- Shaun Keaveny (born 1972), British broadcaster
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