Kilobyte

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Multiples of bytes
Decimal
Value Metric
1000 kB kilobyte
10002 MB megabyte
10003 GB gigabyte
10004 TB terabyte
10005 PB petabyte
10006 EB exabyte
10007 ZB zettabyte
10008 YB yottabyte
Binary
Value IEC JEDEC
1024 KiB kibibyte KB kilobyte
10242 MiB mebibyte MB megabyte
10243 GiB gibibyte GB gigabyte
10244 TiB tebibyte
10245 PiB pebibyte
10246 EiB exbibyte
10247 ZiB zebibyte
10248 YiB yobibyte

The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The International System of Units (SI) defines the prefix kilo as 1000 (103); therefore one kilobyte is 1000 bytes. The unit symbol for the kilobyte is kB. In information technology kilobyte has traditionally also been used to denote 1024 (210) bytes, which arises from binary exponentiation common to digital circuitry. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used when 1024 bytes are meant.

Definitions and usage[edit]

1000 bytes[edit]

In the International System of Units (SI) the prefix kilo- means 1000 (103); therefore one kilobyte is 1000 bytes in this system. The unit symbol is kB.

This is the definition recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).[1] This definition, and related definitions of prefixes mega- = 1000000, giga- = 1000000000, etc., are used for data transfer rates[2] in computer networks, internal bus, hard drive and flash media transfer speeds, and for the capacities of most storage media, particularly hard drives,[3] flash-based storage,[4] and DVDs. It is also consistent with the other uses of the SI prefixes in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance.

The Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported with decimal prefixes.[5]

1024 bytes[edit]

In certain fields of information technology, the kilobyte instead refers to 1024 (210) bytes.[6][7][8] As 1024 (210) approximates 1000 (103), the corresponding SI prefixes were used for the multiples that represent powers of 1024.

This definition, and related definitions of mega = 1048576 (=10242), etc., are mainly used for random-access memory capacities, such as main memory and CPU cache sizes, due to the binary addressing of memory.[a] These "binary meanings" of kilobyte, megabyte, etc., are also used by almost all computer operating systems when reporting disk capacities, memory capacities and file sizes, with the notable exception of the Mac OS X file system that switched to the decimal notation for file sizes.[9][10]

The binary representation of 1024 bytes typically uses the symbol KB (uppercase K). The B is often omitted in informal use. For example, a processor with 65,536 bytes of cache might be said to have "64K" of cache.

Kibibyte[edit]

In December 1998, the IEC addressed such multiple usages and definitions by creating prefixes such as kibi, mebi, gibi, etc., to unambiguously denote powers of 1024.[11] Thus the kibibyte, symbol KiB, represents 210 = 1024 bytes. These prefixes are now part of the International System of Quantities. The IEC further specified that the kilobyte should only be used to refer to 1000 bytes. In practice, kilobyte is still commonly used to refer to 1024 bytes.

Examples[edit]

  • The Shugart SA-400 514-inch floppy disk (1976) held 109,375 bytes unformatted,[12] and was advertised as 110 Kbyte, using the 1000 convention.[13] Likewise, the 8-inch DEC RX01 floppy (1975) held 256,256 bytes formatted, and was advertised as 256k.[14] On the other hand, the Tandon 514-inch DD floppy format (1978) held 368,640 (which is 360×1024) bytes, but was advertised as 360 KB, following the 1024 convention.
  • On modern systems, all versions of Microsoft Windows including the newest (as of 2015) Windows 10 divide by 1024 and represent a 65,536-byte file as 64 KB.[15] Conversely, Mac OS X Snow Leopard and newer represent this as 66 kB, rounding to the nearest 1000 bytes.[16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Exceptions did exist for machines that used decimal addressing, such as the IBM 1401. A "12 K" 1401 has 12,000 characters of memory.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Prefixes for Binary Multiples — The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty
  2. ^ Conversion of Data Transfer Rate Units
  3. ^ 1977 Disk/Trend Report Rigid Disk Drives, published June 1977
  4. ^ SanDisk USB Flash Drive "Note: 1 megabyte (MB) = 1 million bytes; 1 gigabyte (GB) = 1 billion bytes."
  5. ^ "How Mac OS X reports drive capacity". Apple Inc. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  6. ^ Kilobyte – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-webster.com (2010-08-13). Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
  7. ^ Kilobyte | Define Kilobyte at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com (1995-09-29). Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
  8. ^ Definition of kilobyte from Oxford Dictionaries Online. Askoxford.com. Retrieved on 2011-01-07.
  9. ^ "HTG Explains: Why Do Hard Drives Show the Wrong Capacity in Windows?". www.howtogeek.com. Retrieved 2016-04-05. Keep in mind that the hard drive manufacturers are using the accurate description of the terms–the prefix giga, for instance, means a power of 1000, whereas the correct term for powers of 1024 is gibibyte, though it isn’t often used. Unfortunately, Windows has always calculated hard drives as powers of 1024 while hard drive manufacturers use powers of 1000. 
  10. ^ "For the Same File, Why Windows and Ubuntu Show Different Sizes?". Hectic Geek. Retrieved 2016-04-05. Windows assumes that there are 1024 Bytes in a Kilobyte unit, and 1024 Kilobytes in a Megabyte unit etc. 
  11. ^ National Institute of Standards and Technology. "Prefixes for binary multiples".  "In December 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) [...] approved as an IEC International Standard names and symbols for prefixes for binary multiples for use in the fields of data processing and data transmission."
  12. ^ "SA400 minifloppy". Swtpc.com. 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  13. ^ http://www.swtpc.com/mholley/SA400/SA400_Datasheet.pdf
  14. ^ http://bitsavers.org/pdf/dec/disc/rx01/EK-RX01-MM-002_maint_Dec76.pdf
  15. ^ "Determining Actual Disk Size: Why 1.44 MB Should Be 1.40 MB". Support.microsoft.com. 2003-05-06. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  16. ^ "How OS X and iOS report storage capacity". Support.apple.com. 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2014-03-25.