Kumma (Nubia)

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Situation plan of Kumma and Semna

Kumma (also, Semna East) is an archaeological site in Sudan. Established in the mid-12th Dynasty of Egypt, it served as a fortress of ancient Egypt in Nubia. Along with Semna, Kumma was built by Pharaoh Sesostris III (1878 BC - 1839 BC). The forts protected the border between ancient Egypt and the southern areas. Kumma is situated about 365 kilometres (227 mi) south of Aswan, and 35 kilometres (22 mi) southwest of the second cataract of the Nile on the eastern bank. Semna is located on the other side. Both locations are flooded today because of the Aswan High Dam on Lake Nubia. The salvaged temple of Khnum is rebuilt in the Sudan National Museum of Khartoum.

Semna and Kumma, view from the west, mid-19th century


  • Dows Dunham, Jozef M. A. Janssen: Second Cataract Forts. Volume 1: Semna, Kumma. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 1960.
  • Fritz Hintze, Walter F. Reineke: Felsinschriften aus dem Sudanesischen Nubien. 2 Bände (Texte und Tafeln). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-0500-0369-3, S. 98–102 (Publikation der Nubien-Expedition 1961–1963).
  • Stephan Johannes Seidlmayer: Historische und moderne Nilstände. Untersuchungen zu den Pegelablesungen des Nils von der Frühzeit bis zur Gegenwart. Achet, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-9803-7308-8, S. 73–80 (Achet – Schriften zur Ägyptologie A, 1).

Coordinates: 21°30′00″N 30°58′00″E / 21.5°N 30.966667°E / 21.5; 30.966667