CERN Hadron LINACs

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The CERN hadron LINACs are linear accelerators that accelerate beams of hadrons from a standstill to be used by the larger circular accelerators at the facility.

LINAC 1[edit]

LINAC 1 was designed and built during the 1950s to inject 50 MeV protons into the PS. The first beams were accelerated in 1958, and the accelerator was fully operational by 1959.[1] From 1964[citation needed] until its eventual decommissioning, the LINAC was used to accelerate light ions, such as deuterons, alpha particles, oxygen ions and sulphur ions.[2][3][4] LINAC 1 ceased to be used in experiments in 1992.[5]

LINAC 2[edit]

LINAC 2 replaced LINAC 1 as CERN's primary source of proton beams in 1978.[6] It kept the same beam energy, but allowed for more intense beams. It injects into the PSB rather than directly into the PS.

LINAC 3[edit]

LINAC 3 was commissioned in 1994 and is used to accelerate lead ions for the LHC and fixed target experiments at the SPS and LEIR.[7]

LINAC 4[edit]

LINAC 4 is a future linear accelerator, designed to replace LINAC 2 in 2020. Unlike its predecessors, LINAC 4 will accelerate negative hydrogen ions to an energy of 160 MeV.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://home.cern/about/accelerators/linear-accelerator-1
  2. ^ cern.ch [Retrieval 2011-11-28]
  3. ^ project-ps50 - pdf - HTML [Retrieved 2012-01-06]
  4. ^ B.H.Wolf, K.Leible,P.Spädtke,J.Klabunde,B.Langenbeck,N.Angert,R.A.Gough,J.Staples,R.Caylor,D.Howard,R.MacGill,J.Tanabe,H.Haseroth,C.Hill,P.Tetu,M.Weiss,R.Geller - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment Volume 258, Issue 1, 15 July 1987, Pages 1-8 [1] doi:10.1016/0168-9002(87)90074-X Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved [Retrieved 2011-11-29]
  5. ^ cern.ch [Retrieved 2011-11-28]
  6. ^ https://home.cern/about/accelerators/linear-accelerator-2
  7. ^ https://home.cern/about/accelerators/linear-accelerator-3
  8. ^ https://home.cern/about/accelerators/linear-accelerator-4