Lim Koon Teck

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Lim Koon Teck (Chinese: 林坤德) (28 November 1904–29 October 1984) was a barrister-at-law, industrialist and politician in the Malaya and Singapore. He was the first Asian in the Straits Settlements to be appointed to the Colonial Legal Service. He was a magistrate at Penang and Crown Counsel, Singapore. After resigning government service, he joined the Lee Rubber Company. He was interested in introducing new construction methods, like lightweight concrete, to bring down building costs and was interested in helping to solve Singapore's housing shortage. These directed his commercial and political activities.[1]

Background[edit]

Origins[edit]

Coming from a Teochew family,[2] Lim Koon-Teck was born on 28 November 1904, in a small terraced shophouse at St. Gregory's Place, off Hill Street, opposite the Armenian Church,[3] in British Malayan Singapore, the eldest of the fourteen (14) children[4] of Lim Boon-Seng, a cloth merchant, and Tan Gek-Neo. His parents had both come to Singapore from Sarawak, and his grandparents, to Sarawak from China.[5]

Education[edit]

St. Andrews[edit]

He entered St. Andrews School, before he was eight years old,[6] passing his Junior Cambridge in 1920 and his Senior Cambridge in 1922. After that he taught at St. Andrews School. In later years he would become the first Old Boy's representative on the Board of Governors of St. Andrew's School, Singapore.[7] Lim Koon Teck became the 8th president of the Saint Andrew's School Old Boys Association (SAOBA [1]) in 1952 and concentrated on raising funds for the School Building Project and on the promotion of sports among members of the OBA. The play Lady Precious Stream was hosted again by the SAOBA raising $15,615 for the School Building Fund.

Leow Chia-Heng[edit]

Academically he had done well so far, but his family did not have the means to afford him education overseas. At that point, unexpected help arrived. Liau Chia-Heng (廖正興), a pepper merchant whom his father was friendly with at the Teochew Club, made a gift of $5,000 to help fund Koon-Teck's education abroad. Liau Chia-Heng (1870–1931), (also spelt as Liao Chia-Heng and Leow Chia Heng) was a founding member and a Chairman (1911–1912, 1914) of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, founding Shareholder-Director of the Chinese Commercial Bank,[8] a founding Shareholder-Director of the Sze Hai Tong Banking and Insurance Co., Ltd.,[9] and the Teochew representative on the Chinese Advisory Board from 1921–1929.[10][11]

Decision to study law[edit]

While Koon-Teck was actually really interesting in building things, and had wanted to study architecture; that was a six-year course, and all the money he had for his studies and living abroad were insufficient for that, so he decided to take up law instead.[12]

London University matriculation[edit]

In June 1924 he learnt that he had passed the matriculation examination of London University and he left for England by the Hakusan Maru on 19 August 1924, for law studies at the University College, London (UCL),

LL.B (Hons) and barrister of Middle Temple[edit]

He passed his intermediate examination for the LL.B in 1925. He graduated with honours, was called to the Bar at Middle Temple in July 1927, and proceeded to return to Singapore.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Upon him qualifying as a barrister, his father moved the family to a rented house at 119 Emerald Hill Road, next-door to Seow Poh Leng, to reflect Koon-Teck's status.[20] After that he entered Government service.

Civil service 1928–1941[edit]

Lim Koon-Teck had been strongly recommended by Sir Song Ong-Siang, who was very fond of him,[21]

Koon-Teck was called to the Singapore Bar and was appointed deputy registrar of the supreme court, Singapore in January 1928.[22] He was offered $500 a month but was not given the housing and transport allowances that appeared reserved for expatriates.[23] He was appointed to the additional responsibility of Sheriff for Singapore in 1928 and 1929.[24][25] His application to the Colonial Legal Service, however, was not approved.

He was appointed acting registrar during the absence on leave of Registrar W. A. N. Davies in December 1933, through 1935, and took on the added appointment of Sheriff in succession to D. F. J. Ess in August 1935.[26][27][28]

By 1936, Koon-Teck, who was by then Senior Deputy Registrar, was again appointed Acting Registrar of the Supreme Court in the Straits Settlements Civil Service, upon the departure of W. A. N. Davies and at this time it was thought that he would be eventually appointed Registrar.[29][30][31][32][33][34]

He sat for and passed in Malay in August 1936,[35] and was appointed Registrar of the Straits Settlements High Court in January 1937.[36][37]

He was then made Deputy Public Trustee, Singapore in the middle of 1937,[38] and was then transferred to Penang to serve as Second Magistrate there.[39]

By January 1939 he had been moved down to Third Magistrate.[40] In May 1940 he was transferred from his position as Third Police Magistrate in Penang to Malacca to act as District Judge and Registrar, Supreme Court,[41] but this was temporary.

Except for some isolated cases, the Malayan Civil Service, and the Colonial Legal Service were the sole province of Europeans. By June 1940, in response to increasingly loud calls from locals for opportunities in the higher positions in Government service, the Straits Settlements Civil Service was created in 1936.[42][43][44] On 1 August 1940, the Straits Settlements Legal Service was introduced. Both were opened to British subjects who were local-born Asiatics or Eurasians. The salary scale was nearly half of that offered in either the exclusive Malayan Civil Service or Colonial Civil Service.[45][46][47][48][49]

His large bungalow house at 1 Pringgit Hill, was just below the house of the Resident. The houses of all other civil servants were situated below Koon-Teck's. They were not happy with that, and Koon_Teck soon found himself being transferred back to Penang.[50]

Once more he was Third Police Magistrate at Penang.[51] In October 1940 he was appointed Magistrate at Penang.[52]

Finally, after years of waiting, Koon-Teck's application was addressed. Headlined "Mr. Lim Koon Teck Now In Colonial Service," the Straits Times reported, "It is understood that Mr. Lim Koon Teck, third magistrate, Penang has been promoted to Colonial Legal Service from the Straits Settlements Legal Service."[53] And then the war came.

Volunteer Corps[edit]

Koon-Teck had joined the Volunteer Corps at the same time as he joined Government service in Singapore. While he started as a Private, owing to the high position he held, he was given special training and was promoted, in October 1929, to Second Lieutenant in charge of a Company of 40 men, just a month later.[54][55] He was promoted to Lieutenant from 25 October 1932.[56]

World War II 1941–1945[edit]

Departure of the British[edit]

In 1941, after first insisting that British commanders, their troops, and even the local population, should die before allowing an inch of ground to the invaders, Churchill and the chiefs of staff gave the order to surrender. With that order began the withdrawal of British troops from Penang and all of Malaya. On 13 December 1941, fearing the very real possibility of execution for being a magistrate and forbeing an officer of the Straits Settlements Volunteer Corps “C” Company, Lim Koon Teck and his family prepared to board a ferry and withdraw with the rest of the troops only to be refused entry and told that the ferry was for "whites" only. Cast aside and deserted by the Colonial masters he had long idolised, Lim Koon Teck could only watch as an entire contingent, including his former colleagues, left. By 16 December 1941, British Officialdom had left Penang.[57] After the departure of the British, Lim Cheng Ean and Lim Koon Teck took on themselves the responsibility of cordoning off the main shopping and harbour districts in order to stop looting.[58][59]

Keeping order while the Japanese landed[edit]

As the Japanese army preceded by their shock troops descended on the tiny island of Penang, Lim Koon Teck and his volunteers of Company “C” were to become the accepted backbone of law and order in the tiny village of Ayer Itam on which the population of George Town had descended.[60] On 17 December 1941 Koon-Teck organised 80 members of "D" (Chinese) Company of the 3rd Battalion, Straits Settlements Volunteer Force (Penang and Province Wellesley Volunteer Corps) to look after 80,000 evacuees who had fled to Ayer Itam from George Town.[61][62][63][64] The Japanese occupation of Penang had begun.

Hand-over of Penang[edit]

Before the British left, they had asked Koon-Teck to do what they would not, themselves, do. They had asked him to stay back to keep law and order among the people, and to hand Penang over to the Japanese when the latter arrived. After the Japanese stopped their rain of bombs, a Japanese Lieutenant with 10 men arrived from the mainland on a sampan. Koon-Teck approached the officer and handed over the place as he had been instructed to do. Koon-Teck was asked to take the Lieutenant around and he did so, taking him all over Ayer Itam, after which the officer, having observed that everything was peaceful, instructed Koon-Teck to carry on with his Government of the place. This he did for about a month before the Japanese took complete control.[65]

Japanese occupation legal service[edit]

Eventually the Magistrate Court began again. Koon-Teck had been offered to take up the post or be taken away by the Japanese Military Police. Conditions in prison were so bad that Koon-Teck avoided sending people there, preferring to let them off with a warning and an extremely light sentence. The Japanese noticed this and after a few months he was replaced with a Malay who became magistrate. They made Koon-Teck Civil District Judge in Penang with a jurisdiction of $500. As no cases of this nature happened, owing to the Japanese occupation, Koon-Teck had no cases to try for the rest of tenure at Penang – There had been a gang, looting the homes of the rich, all over Penang. They were caught, taken to the police headquarters, where they were tied up and then publicly beheaded by the lieutenant who had taken over the island. There was no serious trouble from anyone after that.[66]

Saving the lives of 50 British soldiers[edit]

Three days after the Japanese had taken Penang Island, the prison superintendent approached Koon-Teck and informed him that almost 50 young English soldiers between 18 and 20 years of age, together with a few British residents from Penang Hill who had not heard of the invasion, were squeezed together in the prison, had not eaten in three days, and were dying. Koon-Teck approached the Japanese lieutenant whom he had handed over the island to, and pleaded their case. Koon-Teck was allowed to feed them and this he did out of the stores of food in the godowns controlled by his men. When the Japanese discovered that he was giving those prisoners more than vegetables, salt and rice – he had introduced a bit of pork bone that he got from the roadside market – they objected. Koon-Teck then went to the Penang General Hospital and discovered a Dr. Evans who had not run away when the others did. Explaining that the prisoners would not live long on the diet they had been allowed, Dr. Evans suggested adding Bovril or some other meat stock into the soup. And this worked. In their weakened state they were susceptible to disease. He then spoke to his superior, a Japanese county court judge who had been made chief judge of the Northern part of the Malayan peninsula. Koon-Teck showed him a book on international law, pointing out that prisoners-of-war should not receive the same treatment as criminals. The prisoners were then removed to Singapore, where they might receive better food and treatment, two weeks after that.[67]

Choong Eng Hye[edit]

When the war first started, Choong Eng-Hye who had helped Koon-Teck when the latter first arrived in Penang, asked if he could help get some diesel oil for his engines. Eng-Hye was the son of Choong Lye Hock of Hock Hin Brothers, whose family business was in rice and coconut. Instead, Koon-Teck suggested he start the engine with a little of the diesel he had left and then introduce coconut oil, which Eng-Hye had plenty of, when the engine was warm. This worked and Eng-Hye was the only one, among his rivals, who did not have a fuel problem.[68]

Rejoining government service after the war[edit]

Accused of collaboration, then cleared[edit]

When the British returned to Penang, everyone, except Third Magistrate Koon-Teck, was called back to their jobs. A month or so later the British Military Police took Koon-Teck away for investigations relating to collaboration with the Japanese. He was freed after about five hours in solitary confinement in an area usually reserved for condemned prisoners awaiting hanging. His wife, Betty, had called up a Judge, who in turn called the Chiefs of the Military Police and the British Military Administration. Koon-Teck put his case for wrongful imprisonment before a Judge who cleared him of all suspicion and praised him for having saved the lives of British soldiers.[69]

Vindicated by honourable discharge on full pension[edit]

By December 1947 he was made deputy public prosecutor. He was then informed that he would be appointed Ipoh District judge, but, a month after that, still prejudiced against him being local, Koon-Teck was informed that he was being posted to Seremban as registrar of the high court, there, instead – the lowest post in the Malayan Civil Service. Koon-Teck objected.[70][71][72] Koon-Teck wrote a letter of complaint for being sent to the lowest possible post despite all he had done to keep order in Penang, the lives he had saved, and his being cleared of all charges of collaboration. He also noted his ill-health. A copy of the letter was sent to the acting chief justice in Kuala Lumpur. In less than a week he received a letter putting him on early retirement at full pension, at just 42 years of age, which was unheard of.[73] He provided the same testimony before the Malayanisation Commission in January 1956[74]

The colour bar and the civil service[edit]

The Straits Settlements were constituted in 1826, and transferred to the Colonial Office in 1867. The Malay States were Federated in 1896. These then correspond with the establishment of their respective civil services.[75]

In 1858 Queen Victoria had proclaimed, "That as far as may be, our subjects, of whatever race or creed, shall be freely and impartially admitted to offices in our service, the duties of which they may be qualified by their education, ability and integrity duly to discharge." There had been no restrictions to the admission of non-European British to the civil services of the Straits Settlements or the Federated Malay States from the date of that proclamation till 1904, when the colonial government secretly and silently, without any announcement, imposed a colour bar in the regulations.[76]

Up to 1904 the requirement was that "cadets must be natural-born British subjects selected by open competitive examination held by the Civil Service Commissioners." In 1905 this was amended that "cadets must be natural-born British subjects of European descent," and in 1911 that"cadets must be natural-born British subjects of pure European descent on both sides." The last amendment had been made, at that time, by the Secretary for State for the Colonies because there was an Eurasian student then in England who had applied for admission to the examination."[77]

In February 1912 there were broad protests to the exclusion of non-European British subjects to the Straits Settlements Civil Service. Prominent members of the community including Song Ong-Siang, Mohd. Ismail Sahib, Tan Kheam Hock, E. Tessensohn, M. S. Anguilla, Heerji P. Kaka, Tan Soo Jin, Yeow Ngan Pan, P. A. Beins, Tan Tat Yan, S. A. R. Alsagoff, S. C. Yin, and F. W. Goonentilleke met to discuss the questions raised in Parliament by MacCallum Scott which revealed a regulation that existed and been operation for seven years, that excluded non-European races from the Straits Settlements Civil Service.[78][79][80]

A public meeting of British subjects of all races resident in Singapore was held at the Victoria Memorial Hall at 5 p.m. on 22 January 1912, to protest "the exclusion of non-Europeans from the Straits Settlements Civil Service on the alleged grounds that the native races, particularly Chinese and Malays, do not pay adequate respect to and do not like half-castes and the existence of peculiar racial conditions among them which has to be taken into account in closing the door for the Civil Service to all other races of the British Subjects who are not of Pure European Descent on both sides."[81]

In April 1924, two legislative councillors again brought up the question of entry of non-Europeans into the civil service. Messrs Nambyar and Tan Cheng Lock were informed that the rule would not be changed.[82][83][84][85]

At an extraordinary general meeting of the Straits Chinese British Association on Monday 23 June 1924, the members considered the reply of the Colonial Secretary in Council dated Monday 14 April 1924 on the question of the civil service not being open to non-Europeans, which was felt to be unsatisfactory. Other resolutions passed were that the government be requested to state who was responsible for the regulation that excluded non-Europeans; that, if the government was not responsible, that The Association make representations to His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies or otherwise take steps to redress grievances; that the civil service and police of the Straits Settlements should be made open to British subjects born or permanently domiciled in the Straits Settlements; that the member of council representing the Chinese community be requested to consult the members of council representing other communities with the view to proposing a motion and having a debate on this subject in council.[86][87][88]

On 24 June 1924, the Eurasian Association, at their extraordinary general meeting held at St. Andrews School, passed the same resolutions.[89][90]

Right after that, the majority of those attending the Moslem Association's special general meeting voted to adopt the resolutions already passed by the Straits Chinese and Eurasian associations respecting non-Europeans and the civil service.[91][92][93]

The subject of non-Europeans and the civil service was again brought up at the Legislative Council in August 1927.[94] Asking the question again in August 1932, legislative council member Dr. Noel Clarke was informed that Government was still not prepared to admit non-European British subjects to the civil service.[95][96][97]

The subject was brought up in the Legislative Council in 1932, and the answer again was no.[98] Each time the question was raised, a different reason was given, but the answer was always no.[99]

In March 1933, the Straits Settlements Civil Service for non-Europeans was introduced.[100][101] At the legislative council meeting in May 1933, Dr. Noel Clarke raised an issue. He noted that there were contradictions between what was said by sir George Hicks, Labour member for East Woolwich and Philip Cunliffe-Lister, Secretary of State for the Colonies as reported in the press on 24 March 1933, and what had been said by the colonial secretary at the legislative council meeting of 6 March 1933. From the newspapers, it was given to understand that London acknowledged that there had been discrimination, and further that the Malayan Civil Service was not part of the colonial administrative service, with facilities for local recruitment. However at the previous legislative council meeting, the colonial secretary had said that the Asiatic service should be entirely separate from the Malayan Civil Service proper, the latter being reserved for candidates of pure European descent, while the former was open to Asiatics or Eurasians. He questioned whether Malays born and bred in the colony were admitted into the service as were Malays born and bred in the Malay states. He pointed out that there were inconsistencies in the policy and between what had been said in London and what had more recently been described in Singapore.[102]

The Malayan Saturday Post in 1933 wrote, "The door of the real Civil Service is not opened. The non-European is let in through the scullery window. There is to be no open competition with Europeans for any of the plums."[103]

After the war, efforts to call for a level playing field, resumed. In 1947 voices were raised in the legislative council, insisting on the removal of the colour bar from the civil services.[104][105][106]

There was to be no free access to the civil service. Things only started easing up with the departure of Europeans from the service after 1956.[107]

War damage compensation[edit]

When the Joint Malayan Committee on War Damage Compensation was put together in 1946, Koon-Teck was then elected by the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce to represent Chinese mercantile interests on the committee.[108] Lee Rubber had receipts of payments for all its premiums on its $15 million insured but the head of the committee did not want to do anything until all claims were in and so he sat on everything for a year, enjoying his $5,000-a-month salary, free house and car, while Koon-Teck scurried around getting hold of all the other directors of big companies in Singapore and have them prepare and submit their claims. Then Koon-Teck was sent to London to address the authorities there. He related his experience and a senior officer of Lloyd's was sent to Singapore to replace the head of the Claims Committee. All claims were settled within two months, the first being those of Lee Rubber, who recovered $13 million. It seems clear that Lee Rubber did not expect to have recovered this much. Lee Kong-Chian gave Koon-Teck $500,000 in appreciation for managing to recover as much as he had.[109]

Post-war part-time government service[edit]

There were not enough Public Prosecutors right after the Japanese Occupation and at one time there was an eight-month backlog of cases. Despite all that had been done to him and the way he had been treated in the past, Koon-Teck responded to the Government's appeal and voluntarily went back, on a part-time basis, working for about six months, as Crown Counsel or Public Prosecutor - he was paid half what full-time prosecutors got. But he did not accept the Attorney-General's invitation to return full-tile to the legal profession – even with the promise of the Solicitor-General's position a few years after rejoining, Koon-Teck could make $100,000 a year outside compared to, at most, $12,000 a year back in Government service.[110]

Rebuilding Singapore – Sennett Housing Committee[edit]

He was member of The Committee, appointed in April 1947 by Governor Sir Franklin Charles Gimson, to report on housing in Singapore and draw up a preliminary plan for building to relieve the housing shortage. The Committee was chaired by C. W. A. Sennett (the then Commissioner of Lands and Chairman of the Singapore Rural Board). Other members of The Committee included E. C. Cooper representing the Singapore Chamber of Commerce, R. Jumabhoy representing the Indian Chamber of Commerce, S. I. O. Algasoff (Municipal Commissioner), and Teo Cheng-Tian. Koon-Teck represented the interests of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce.[111][112] The Committee issued its report in August 1948.[113] The Committee's programmes for 1950–1953, were approved by Sir Patrick Abercrombie, British town planner.[114] By June 1947 The Committee had inspected possible sites for their $50,000,000 plan to re-house 50,000 low-income members of the population.[115]

Champion of low-cost homes for low-income people[edit]

He often criticised Government spending where he felt it was excessive, was sympathetic to the plight of the less fortunate who struggled to have their own homes and encouraged savings among wage-earners. In November 1954, Singapore United Rubber Estates Limited and Sembawang Rubber Estate Limited, two Singapore rubber companies with a joint-multimillion-dollar plan to build low cost houses for sale to the public on installment, appointed Koon-Teck to be on their respective Boards of Directors in London.[116][117][118][119] In March 1955 he said that his life's ambition was to build low-cost houses for low-salaried wage-earners. He was, at that time associated with two housing estates whose object was to build 2,000 to 3,000 houses for people with low incomes, and factories producing building materials.[120][121] By the end of 1955, one of those, Phoo Yong Estate, off the sixth mile Bukit Timah Road, became home to 150 low income families. The houses in estate were priced at $6,000, $8,500 and $12,000. The estates were the property of Lee Kong Chian, to whom Koon Teck was legal adviser.[122][123] In 1952, he had demonstrated that low cost housing for low-income wage-earners was a very real possibility. By 15 November, over 1,500 people had come to see the block of four cheap "package" houses completed in 140 hours by 10 workers at cost of $2,000 each. Eace of these came with a bedroom, sitting room, store, kitchen and bathroom, and if wood were to be substituted for steel in the house frame, a lavatory could be added on for free. The estimated labour cost was $500, but, if he chose to, a homeowner could build it himself with the help of an experienced labourer. The estimated cost for installation of light and water was $300 and the amount of land needed was only 500 square feet.[124][125][126][127][128]

Expanding Lee Kong Chian's business[edit]

Lee Kong Chian, who had been in America during the war, stopped at Penang before proceeding to Singapore. Koon-Teck used to have lunch with Lee Kong-Chian when the former was still Deputy Registrar at Singapore. Kong-Chian decided to stay a night at Penang and used that time in discussion with Koon-Teck. At that point Kong-Chian offered Koon-Teck a job as the former's lawyer. It was 1946 and Koon-Teck returned to Singapore under the employ of Lee Kong-Chian.[129]

Koon-Teck's connection with Lee Kong-Chian went back a long way. They had served together at the Garden Club when the latter was President and the former a member of the Election and the Management committees.[130][131] Kong-Chian was also associated with Koon-Teck's father-in-law, Seow Poh Leng, the two of them having been established businessmen and had served together as long-time members of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce,[132] Chinese Association,[133] Straits Settlements Association,[134][135] Singapore Chinese Recreation Club,[136] board of directors of the Singapore Chinese Girls' School,[137] board of directors of the Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation Limited,[138] founded earlier by Poh Leng, Rotary Club,[139] Chinese Swimming Club,[140] and the Garden Club, where Koon-Teck also served.[141]

Koon-Teck was more of a personal assistant than a legal advisor – Lee Rubber had its own solicitors. Initially Koon-Teck was occupied in attending to Lee Kong-Chian's war claims and buying land very cheaply at auctions – no one had much money at that time.[142]

During the Japanese occupation Lee Rubber's property had been seized by the Japanese for their own use. All Japanese property had then been held by the returning British to be used to pay out war damage compensation. After recovering $13 million out of the $15 million claimed, there was very little legal work to be done or legal advice to be given. Lee Kong-Chian gave Koon-Teck a very free hand. And with all the free time he had, Koon-Teck soon found things to do.[143]

Koon-Teck told Kong-Chian about pepper and how he would like to deal in pepper produce. With a nod from the latter, Koon-Teck started the Lee Produce Company, a profitable venture, exporting produce to London.[144]

He saw an opportunity in real-estate and Koon-Teck soon spent most of his time acquiring property for Lee Kong-Chian, including the Chequer's Hotel, purchased at 24 cents an acre. He attended auctions and bought mostly vacant land. Koon-Teck became a Director and took a closer interest in the company. Koon-Teck told Kong-Chian of his love for building houses, especially to help lowly-paid people like clerks, own their own homes. Kong-Chian told Koon-Teck that he had 50 acres across from Hume Industries on Bukit Timah Road that could be developed.

In 1949, with a nod from Lee Kong-Chian, Koon-Teck, all by himself, started and ran a factory, on 50 acres of land at Elias Road, to manufacture concrete blocks. The factory turned out 1,000 special concrete blocks a day at a time when there was a shortage of bricks and homes. His objective was to help build more houses at prices within reach of the working man which he saw as the best way of solving the housing shortage problem.[145] He helped solve problems of delays at the Singapore Improvement Trust's Tiong Bahru project caused by a brick shortage by supplying them with 2,000 light cellular concrete blocks.[146]

Concrete block terraced houses were built on 25 acres and sold (without sewage) for $6,000 each, and semi-detached houses (with sewage) for $10,000. When the Salvation army approached Koon-Teck for help in building a Home for Boys he turned to Kong-Chian who agreed to give them the other 25 acres.[147]

He bought land cheaply and when others had a genuine need, he would bring their plight to the attention of Lee Kong-Chian. People knew that the way to get to Lee Kong-Chian was through Lim Koon Teck and so when the Government wanted land for a school adjacent to Chequer's Hotel, they approached Koon-Teck. Kong-Chian agreed and the school was named Lee Kuo Chuan School, after Kong-Chian's father. A few acres at the back of the Hotel were sold to the Straits Times at $6 per square foot. And, 12 acres with some shophouses were acquired by Government at approximately $1 per square foot.[148]

Bukit Sembawang Estates Limited[edit]

In 1968, he became Chairman of newly formed Bukit Sembawang Estates Limited, listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange. The company's first year ended 31 March 1969 with a profit and after acquiring Bukit Sembawang Rubber Co. Lt.d of Britain. He served as Chairman till his death.[149][150][151][152][153][154][155][156]

Koon-Teck heard that Bukit Sembawang Rubber Estate had short-sold 500 acres to a syndicate for $3,000 an acre, the price the Admiralty and Air Force had paid the estate for much more land that was used for the Seletar Navy and Air bases. He knew that the price ought to have been at least double. He informed Lee Kong-Chian who was dismayed. Lee Kong-Chain had a lot of shares in Bukit Sembawang Estate. At his suggestion Koon-Teck went to London to address the Board of Drectors there and was appointed a Director with a responsibility for Sales.[157]

Koon-Teck's interest in taking up the Directorship with Sembawang Estate was to help people through the construction of low-cost housing. His first project involved 100 acres at Sembawang, Upper Thomson Road, entirely built under his supervision, and sold at prices below that being charged by the syndicate who had bought the land earlier (for Serangoon Gardens estate). between eight and nine hundred houses, selling for between eight and twelve thousand dollars, were sold.[158]

Koon-Teck then looked at Yio Chu Kang Road and began there with Mimosa Park, with the same idea. To sell cheap houses. Koon-Teck was happy to be able to help those less well-to-do get a roof over their heads. He did all he could to keep the price of houses down, often selling 10 to 15 percent below what other developers were charging. Over a thousand houses were built and sold that way.[159]

Building Society of Malaya, Limited[edit]

Koon-Teck was a Director of the Building Society of Malaya, Limited, for a great many years. The Building Society of Malaya, formed in 1938 by S. H. Peck, closed down in 1942, when Singapore fell. The Society's slogan was, "Don't Pay Rent - Buy Your Own Home," and its closely mimicked the methods of British building societies. The Society was re-organised and reopened in August 1948. Koon-Teck, together with Lee Kong-Chian, W. Munro and Ng Sen-Choy were associated with S. H. Peck, as Directors.[160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167]

Other official roles[edit]

Corporate directorships[edit]

  • Director, Lee Rubber[168]
  • Director, Lee Engineers[169]
  • Director, Chinese Bankers Trust Co.[170]
  • Director, Hume Industries (Far East) Limited, in 1967[171][172]
  • Director, British and Malayan Trustees Limited[173]
  • Director of Singapore Land and Investment Company Limited[174]

Non-corporate roles[edit]

  • Vice-president and patron, Singapore Arts Theatre.[175]
  • Fund-raiser, University of Malaya Endowment Fund.[176]
  • Chairman, Committee of Approval regarding evictions from premises belonging to the Singapore Improvement Trust.[177]
  • Member, Board of Management of St. Andrew's Mission Hospital.[178]
  • Founding member, Singapore's Safety First Committee.[179]
  • Member, Elections Committee and Management Committee of the Garden Club.[180]

Independence movement[edit]

In 1955 a commission to inquire into the Malayanisation of the public services was set up under the Inquiry Commissions Ordinance, 1941.[181] Koon-Teck appeared before the commission and told them of how he retired from service in disappointment. While he had applied to join the Colonial Legal Service in 1936, it was only four years later (1940) that he was told he had been appointed. He informed The Commission that he was acting Registrar of the Supreme Court, Singapore, in 1936, when he applied to join the Colonial Legal Service, and was only told he had been appointed to that service four years later, in 1940. At that time the post given to him was one specially created for him – Registrar, Civil District Court, which was lower than the post he had when he first joined the service four years earlier. Then the war occurred, and after liberation he was informed that he would be appointed district judge, Ipoh, but a month later he was told that he was to proceed to Seremban as registrar of the high court there. This, he told the commission, was "too much," and he retired from the service in 1946.[182] He was also a member of the Singapore delegation in the Rahman–Marshall talks in 1955.[183]

In April 1956 Koon-Teck, representing the Liberal Socialist party accompanied Chief Minister David Marshall to London for the first Malayan Independence or Merdeka Constitutional Talks at Lancaster House. Included in the delegation were Minister for Labour Lim Yew-Hock, Minister for Local Government Abdul Hamid bin Haji Jumat, Minister for Health A. J. Braga, Minister for Commerce and Industry J. M. Jumabhoy, Wong Foo-Nam and Seah Peng-Chuan (other members of the coalition government), WilliamTan, Lim Choon Mong and Lim Cher Keng (Liberal Socialists), Lee Kuan Yew and Lim Chin Siong (People's Action Party).[184][185][186][187]

Lim Koon-Teck was also one of a select few included in Singapore's Merdeka Mission to London in 1957. There were five delegates – three from the Coalition Government and one each from the Liberal Socialist Party and the People's Action Party. The delegation of five was made up of the Chief Minister, Mr. Lim Yew Hock, the Minister for Education, Mr. Chew Swee Kee, the Assistant Minister for Education, Inche Sidek bin Haji Abdul Hamid, Liberal Socialist Mr Lim Koon Teck and the PAP leader, Mr Lee Kuan Yew.[188][189]

Politics[edit]

Koon-Teck's interest in the welfare of the people led him to look more closely at the subject of the new independence. He joined the Progressive Party and was made candidate for Paya Lebar. Koon-Teck had wanted Tanglin, where he lived, but party leaders thought that was too easy. Most of the labourers and working-class lived there. So Koon-Teck did not mind and agreed to this.[190]

Lim Koon Teck stood for elections for the City in 1949 under the Progressive Party, Paya Lebar in 1955 under the Progressive Party and Aljunied in 1962 under the Singapore Alliance.

In December 1958, Lim Koon Teck, former leader of the Liberal Socialists, took his seat on the benches of the Singapore People's Alliance in the Legislative Assembly.[191] Taking up his new seat he showed that his position, however, had not changed, when he made a call, in the Legislative Assembly, for the Government to help lower income groups in need of housing, proposing that Government start a 'revolving fund' of $1,000,000 to buy land and sell cheaply as building sites, the proceeds of which could be recycled indefinitely.[192]

He was unable, under law, to contest in the 30 May 1959 election resulting from the objection to his nomination by an assistant returning officer.[193]

1949 elections[edit]

1949 Legislative Assembly Results for City (1,156):[194]
16.90% – 326—PP—Lim Koon Teck
27.40% – 527—PP—Mohamed Kassim bin Oli Mohamed
20.70% – 398—PP—Sandy Gurunathan Pillay
19.50% – 375—IND—Hassan Ali bin Jivabhai
15.50% – 299—LP—Syed Mumtaz bin Hussain

1955 elections[edit]

1955 Legislative Assembly Results for Paya Lebar (12,827):[195]
52.07% – 3,330—PP—Lim Koon Teck
47.93% – 3,065—DP—Tan Eng Joo

1963 elections[edit]

1963 Legislative Assembly Results for Aljunied (16,152):[196]
11.05% – 1,681—SA—Lim Koon Teck
50.90% – 7,745—PAP—S. V. Lingam
30.39% – 4,624—BS—Thio Kheng Lock
07.66% – 1,165—UPP—Woo Kong Seng

Death[edit]

Lim Koon-Teck died on 29 October 1984 at the age of 84 years, leaving behind his wife (née Seow Guat Beng), two daughters (Mrs. William Turnbull née Lim Cheng-Kim, Penny Lim Cheng-Sim), and three grandchildren. On 31 October 1984 his body was removed from his residence at 5 Balmoral Road to Mount Vernon Crematoria.[197]

Sources[edit]

  1. Supreme Court, Singapore, on the eve of Their Lordships on furlough Reference BAM 2/5 created by Paul & Co Covering Dates 28 Mar. 1928[198]
  2. Blood on the Golden Sands by Lim Kean Siew (Pelanduk)
  3. Forgotten Armies – The Fall of British Asia 1941–1945 by Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper (Allen Lane 2004)
  4. Photograph collection of the British Association of Malaysia and Singapore, Supreme Court, Singapore, on the eve of Their Lordships on furlough, Reference BAM 2/5 by Paul and Co 28 Mar. 1928—A group portrait showing the members and staff of the Supreme Court. The figures in the group are: W. Piyanage, Secretary to Puisne Judge; Chin Yong Lock, Chinese interpreter; G.V. ROWE, Indian interpreter; Yeo Tiang Swee, Senior Chinese interpreter; Henry Auguster Forrer (1886–1969), Malayan Civil Service 1909–, Registrar; Sir George Campbell Deane (1873–1948), Puisne Judge, Straits Settlements 1924–1929; Sir James William Murison (1872–1945), Chief Justice, Straits Settlements, 1925–1933; Bertram Reginald Whitehouse (1891–), Malayan Civil Service 1915–1935, Deputy Registrar; Lim Koon Teck, Deputy Registrar; C.W. Chelappa, Secretary to Chief Justice; L. Naturajan, Indian interpreter.
  5. Thanks to Lim Koon Teck — letter to ed., Utusan Melayu, 9 December 1955
  6. Only Five Will Go to London, Straits Times, 20th Feb 1957

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Straits Times, 2 April 1949, Page 8
  2. ^ Lim, B. (1994) A Rose on My Pillow: Recollections of a Nonya. Singapore: Armour Publishing Pte. Ltd. Page 24.
  3. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 1.
  4. ^ Lim, B. (1994) A Rose on My Pillow: Recollections of a Nonya. Singapore: Armour Publishing Pte. Ltd. Page 15.
  5. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 1.
  6. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 1.
  7. ^ Kovilpillai, D. (1962) A short History of St. Andrew's School 1862–1962. Singapore. G.H. Kiat.
  8. ^ The Straits Times, 26 September 1907, Page 10
  9. ^ The Straits Times, 2 December 1912, Page 14
  10. ^ The Straits Times, 14 August 1924, Page 8
  11. ^ Kuo, H. Y. (2007) Transnational Business Networks and Sub-ethnic Nationalism: Chinese Business and Nationalist Activities in Interwar Hong Kong and Singapore, 1919–1941. New York: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Pages 92, 286, 290.
  12. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 1.
  13. ^ The Straits Times, 27 July 1927, Page 8
  14. ^ The Straits Times, 21 January 1927, Page 10
  15. ^ The Straits Times, 23 July 1925, Page 8
  16. ^ The Straits Times, 14 August 1924, Page 8
  17. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 16 June 1924, Page 6
  18. ^ The Straits Times, 28 April 1922, Page 15
  19. ^ The Straits Times, 20 April 1920, Page 10
  20. ^ Lim, B. (1994) A Rose on My Pillow: Recollections of a Nonya. Singapore: Armour Publishing Pte. Ltd. Page 15.
  21. ^ Lim, B. (1994) A Rose on My Pillow: Recollections of a Nonya. Singapore: Armour Publishing Pte. Ltd. Page 23.
  22. ^ The Straits Times, 7 January 1928, Page 8
  23. ^ Tan, Y. L. (2008) Marshall of Singapore: A Biography. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing. Page 94
  24. ^ The Straits Times, 12 October 1929, Page 17
  25. ^ The Straits Times, 30 June 1928, Page 8
  26. ^ The Straits Times, 12 August 1935, Page 10
  27. ^ The Straits Times, 27 July 1934, Page 18
  28. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 15 December 1933, Page 8
  29. ^ The Straits Times, 31 January 1936, Page 12
  30. ^ The Straits Times, 15 February 1936, Page 12
  31. ^ The Straits Times, 29 November 1935, Page 14
  32. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 18 February 1936, Page 6
  33. ^ The Straits Times, 3 February 1936, Page 2
  34. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 1 February 1936, Page 6
  35. ^ The Straits Times, 17 August 1936, Page 17
  36. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 5 January 1937, Page 3
  37. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 5 January 1937, Page 7
  38. ^ The Straits Times, 7 June 1937, Page 2
  39. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 27 September 1938, Page 5
  40. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 9 January 1939, Page 3
  41. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 20 May 1940, Page 2
  42. ^ The Straits Times, 15 February 1936, Page 12
  43. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 7 June 1940, Page 2
  44. ^ The Straits Times, 7 June 1940, Page 11
  45. ^ The Straits Times, 24 July 1940, Page 11
  46. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 1 August 1940, Page 5
  47. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 5 August 1940, Page 5
  48. ^ The Straits Times, 5 August 1940, Page 9
  49. ^ The Straits Times, 12 August 1940, Page 6
  50. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 2
  51. ^ The Straits Times, 28 July 1940, Page 9
  52. ^ The Straits Times, 4 October 1940, Page 12
  53. ^ The Straits Times, 26 September 1941, Page 10
  54. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 3
  55. ^ The Straits Times, 26 October 1929, Page 12
  56. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 10 November 1932, Page 3
  57. ^ The Straits Times, 17 December 1947, Page 6
  58. ^ Cooper, B. (2001) Decade of change: Malaya and the Straits Settlements, 1936–1945. Braham Brash. Page 213.
  59. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 2
  60. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 2
  61. ^ The Straits Times, 17 December 1947, Page 6
  62. ^ The Straits Times, 19 March 1950, Page 1
  63. ^ The Straits Times, 18 December 1954, Page 4
  64. ^ The Straits Times, 24 December 1961, Page 4
  65. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 2
  66. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 3
  67. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 3
  68. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 2
  69. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 4
  70. ^ The Straits Times, 24 January 1956, Page 7
  71. ^ The Straits Times, 18 December 1947, Page 5
  72. ^ The Singapore Free Press, 16 August 1947, Page 8
  73. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 4
  74. ^ The Straits Times, 24 January 1956, Page 7
  75. ^ Makepiece, Walter, Gilbert E. Brooke, and Roland St.J. Braddell (eds.). One Hundred Years of Singapore Vol 1. London: John Murray, 1921. Page 70.
  76. ^ The Straits Times, 28 April 1924, Page 11
  77. ^ The Straits Times, 27 June 1924, Page 9
  78. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 3 February 1912, Page 12
  79. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 26 January 1912, Page 12
  80. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 13 February 1912, Page 12
  81. ^ The Straits Times, 17 January 1912, Page 5
  82. ^ The Straits Times, 15 April 1924, Page 8
  83. ^ The Straits Times, 15 April 1924, Page 9
  84. ^ The Straits Times, 8 April 1924, Page 9
  85. ^ The Straits Times, 14 April 1924, Page 9
  86. ^ The Straits Times, 16 June 1924, Page 9
  87. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 24 June 1924, Page 7
  88. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 26 June 1924, Page 5
  89. ^ The Straits Times, 17 June 1924, Page 7
  90. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 25 June 1924, Page 9
  91. ^ The Straits Times, 30 June 1924, Page 8
  92. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 30 June 1924, Page 7
  93. ^ The Straits Times, 24 June 1924, Page 10
  94. ^ Malayan Saturday Post, 27 August 1927, Page 20
  95. ^ The Straits Times, 24 August 1927, Page 10
  96. ^ The Straits Times, 23 August 1927, Page 8
  97. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 23 August 1927, Page 9
  98. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 10 August 1932, Page 10
  99. ^ The Straits Times, 23 December 1932, Page 19
  100. ^ Malayan Saturday Post, 29 April 1933, Page 2
  101. ^ Malayan Saturday Post, 11 March 1933, Page 2
  102. ^ The Straits Times, 1 May 1933, Page 11
  103. ^ Malayan Saturday Post, 6 May 1933, Page 2
  104. ^ The Straits Times, 4 July 1947, Page 6
  105. ^ The Straits Times, 11 December 1947, Page 6
  106. ^ The Straits Times, 2 July 1948, Page 6
  107. ^ The Straits Times, 7 December 1956, Page 8
  108. ^ The Straits Times, 9 November 1946, Page 3
  109. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  110. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  111. ^ The Straits Times, 19 April 1947, Page 1
  112. ^ The Straits Times, 23 May 1947, Page 3
  113. ^ The Straits Times, 18 August 1948, Page 4
  114. ^ The Straits Times, 3 February 1949, Page 1
  115. ^ The Straits Times, 15 June 1947, Page 1
  116. ^ The Straits Times, 27 November 1954, Page 4
  117. ^ The Straits Times, 6 September 1952, Page 9
  118. ^ The Straits Times, 28 February 1953, Page 9
  119. ^ The Straits Times, 11 August 1952, Page 6
  120. ^ The Straits Times, 30 March 1955, Page 2
  121. ^ The Straits Times, 21 March 1955, Page 2
  122. ^ The Straits Times, 13 February 1955, Page 9
  123. ^ The Straits Times, 28 November 1954, Page 10
  124. ^ The Straits Times, 16 November 1952, Page 9
  125. ^ The Straits Times, 12 November 1952, Page 8
  126. ^ The Straits Times, 19 July 1952, Page 5
  127. ^ The Straits Times, 24 March 1952, Page 5
  128. ^ The Straits Times, 27 February 1952, Page 7
  129. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 4
  130. ^ Singapore Daily News, 22 November 1932, Page 4
  131. ^ The Straits Times, 22 November 1932, Page 12
  132. ^ The Straits Times, 29 July 1929, Page 12
  133. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 4 March 1924, Page 7
  134. ^ The Straits Times, 15 December 1926, Page 12
  135. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 15 December 1926, Page 20
  136. ^ The Straits Times, 19 August 1927, Page 10
  137. ^ The Straits Times, 4 July 1931, Page 18
  138. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 19 June 1935, Page 10
  139. ^ The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884–1942), 12 November 1935, Page 2
  140. ^ The Straits Times, 10 February 1936, Page 5
  141. ^ Singapore Daily News, 22 November 1932, Page 4
  142. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  143. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  144. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  145. ^ The Straits Times, 23 March 1949, Page 8
  146. ^ The Singapore Free Press, 1 February 1949, Page 5
  147. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  148. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  149. ^ The Straits Times, 11 September 1971, Page 14
  150. ^ The Straits Times, 1 July 1976, Page 23
  151. ^ The Straits Times, 11 July 1978, Page 15
  152. ^ The Straits Times, 2 July 1979, Page 27
  153. ^ The Straits Times, 7 July 1980, Page 9
  154. ^ The Straits Times, 6 July 1981, Page 1
  155. ^ The Straits Times, 5 July 1982, Page 17
  156. ^ Singapore Monitor, 30 May 1985, Page 10
  157. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  158. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  159. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 5
  160. ^ The Straits Times, 15 August 1948, Page 7
  161. ^ Berita Harian, 28 June 1975, Page 8
  162. ^ Berita Harian, 26 May 1980, Page 9
  163. ^ The Straits Times, 1 June 1981, Page 35
  164. ^ The Straits Times, 30 May 1983, Page 25
  165. ^ Berita Harian, 28 May 1984, Page 9
  166. ^ The Straits Times, 28 May 1984, Page 25
  167. ^ The Straits Times, 16 May 1951, Page 7
  168. ^ The Straits Times, 27 February 1952, Page 7
  169. ^ The Straits Times, 16 November 1952, Page 9
  170. ^ The Straits Times, 27 November 1956, Page 1
  171. ^ The Straits Times, 31 March 1967, Page 19
  172. ^ The Straits Times, 7 May 1964, Page 15
  173. ^ The Straits Times, 4 July 1966, Page 17
  174. ^ The Straits Times, 4 December 1964, Page 20
  175. ^ The Straits Times, 9 December 1951, Page 11
  176. ^ The Straits Times, 13 March 1951, Page 4
  177. ^ The Straits Times, 21 July 1949, Page 7
  178. ^ The Straits Times, 30 April 1949, Page 5
  179. ^ The Straits Times, 13 June 1948, Page 7
  180. ^ Singapore Daily News, 22 November 1932, Page 4
  181. ^ The Straits Times, 1 July 1955, Page 8
  182. ^ The Straits Times, 24 January 1956, Page 7
  183. ^ The Straits Times, 31 August 1955, Page 7
  184. ^ The Straits Times, 17 March 1956, Page 1
  185. ^ The Singapore Free Press, 9 April 1956, Page 1
  186. ^ The Straits Times, 17 March 1956, Page 1
  187. ^ Political Milestones on the official website of the National Archives of Singapore.
  188. ^ The Straits Times, 6 March 1957, Page 1
  189. ^ The Straits Times, 8 March 1957, Page 1
  190. ^ Lim Koon Teck, oral history interview, Oral History Centre, National Archives of Singapore, reel 6
  191. ^ The Straits Times, 4 December 1958, Page 11
  192. ^ The Straits Times, 19 December 1958, Page 2
  193. ^ The Straits Times, 13 May 1959, Page 12
  194. ^ The Straits Times, 3 April 1949, Page 1
  195. ^ The Straits Times, 3 April 1955, Page 1
  196. ^ The Straits Times, 22 September 1963, Page 2
  197. ^ The Straits Times, 30 October 1984, Page 38
  198. ^ 280 x 227 mm (mounted on card). Letterpress caption and identification. A group portrait showing the members and staff of the Supreme Court. The figures in the group are: W. Piyanage, Secretary to Puisne Judge; Chin Yong Lock, Chinese interpreter; G .V. Rowe, Indian interpreter; Yeo Tiang Swee, Senior Chinese interpreter; Henry Auguster Forrer (1886–1969), Malayan Civil Service 1909–, Registrar; Sir George Campbell Deane (1873–1948), Puisne Judge, Straits Settlements 1924–1929; Sir James William Murison (1872–1945), Chief Justice, Straits Settlements, 1925–1933; Bertram Reginald Whitehouse (1891–), Malayan Civil Service 1915–1935, Deputy Registrar; Lim Koon Teck, Deputy Registrar; C.W. Chelappa, Secretary to Chief Justice; L. Naturajan, Indian interpreter.