Limacina retroversa

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Limacina retroversa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Euopisthobranchia
clade Thecosomata

Superfamily: Cavolinioidea
Family: Limacinidae
Genus: Limacina
Species: L. retroversa
Binomial name
Limacina retroversa
(Fleming, 1823)[1]
  • Fusus retroversus Fleming, 1823
  • Heterofusus alexandri Verrill, 1872
  • Heterofusus retroversus Fleming, 1823
  • Limacina balea Møller, 1841
  • Peracle flemingii Forbes, 1844
  • Scaea stenogyra Philippi, 1844
  • Spirialis australis Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840
  • Spirialis balea (Møller, 1841)
  • Spirialis jeffreysii Forbes & Hanley, 1849
  • Spirialis macandrewi Forbes & Hanley, 1849
  • Spirialis gouldii Stimpson, 1851
  • Spiralis retroversa
  • Trochus lunaris Gmelin, 1791

Limacina retroversa is a species of swimming predatory sea snail in the family Limacinidae,[3] that belong to the group commonly known as sea butterflies (Thecosomata).

There is one subspecies: Limacina retroversa australis (Eydoux & Souleyet, 1840)


This marine species has a wide distribution:

  • North Atlantic Ocean
  • Northwest Atlantic Ocean
  • European waters
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Caribbean Sea
  • Cape Verde
  • Argentine Sea[4]


Pteropod Clione limacina feeds almost entirely on genus Limacina: on Limacina helicina and on Limacina retroversa.[5][6]


  1. ^ Fleming J. (1823). "On a reversed species of Fusus (Fusus retroversus)". Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh, 4(2): 498-500, plate 15, figure 2.
  2. ^ "Limacina retroversa". CLEMAM, accessed 3 February 2011.
  3. ^ a b Gofas, S. (2011). Limacina retroversa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 18 July 2012
  4. ^ Dadon J. R. & de Cidre L. L. (1992). "The reproductive cycle of the Thecosomatous pteropod Limacina retroversa in the western South Atlantic". Marine Biology 114: 439-442. doi:10.1007/BF00350035, PDF.
  5. ^ Lalli C. M. & Gilmer R. W. (1989). Pelagic Snails. The biology of holoplanktonic gastropod molluscs. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. page 188.
  6. ^ Kallevik, I.H.F. (2013). Alternative prey choice in the pteropod Clione limacina (Gastropoda) studied by DNA-based methods. Biology Field of study - Arctic Marine Ecology and Resource Biology. Bio-3950 (60 ECT). The University Center in Svalbard.
  • Abbott, R.T. (1974). American Seashells. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, NY (USA). 663 pp.
  • Rosenberg, G. 1992. Encyclopedia of Seashells. Dorset: New York. 224 pp.
  • Bleakney, J.S. 1996. Sea slugs of Atlantic Canada and the Gulf of Maine. The Nova Scotia Museum Field Guide Series. Nimbus Publishing. Halifax. 216 p.
  • Turgeon, D.D., et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180-213
  • Rolán E., 2005. Malacological Fauna From The Cape Verde Archipelago. Part 1, Polyplacophora and Gastropoda.
  • Janssen A.W. (2012) Late Quaternary to Recent holoplanktonic Mollusca (Gastropoda) from bottom samples of the eastern Mediterranean Sea: systematics, morphology. Bollettino Malacologico 48 (suppl. 9): 1-105.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lebour M. V. (1932). "Limacina retroversa in Plymouth waters". J. mar. biol. Assoc. U.K. (ns)18(1): 123-129, 2 pls.