Pakualaman (also written Paku Alaman) is a small Javanese princely state within the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. It was created in 1812 when Natakusuma (later Paku Alam I) was rewarded for helping the British quell the conflict in Yogyakarta in June 1812. It became the mirror-image of the Mangkunegaran principality in the territory of the Susuhunanate of Surakarta.
A Pakualaman Corps of 100 cavalry (later 50 cavalry and 100 infantry) was established, but was never to become as significant as the Mangkunegaran Legion, and disbanded in 1892.
Due to Paku Alam VIII's role in the Indonesian independence movement, a law was passed to give the position of vice-governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region to the reigning Prince Paku Alam at any particular time. Meanwhile, the Sultans of Yogyakarta were to hold the governor's office on a hereditary basis.
List of rulers
- Paku Alam I, 1812 – 1829
- Paku Alam II, 1829 – 1858
- Paku Alam III, 1858 – 1864
- Paku Alam IV, 1864 – 1878
- Paku Alam V, 1878 – 1900
- Paku Alam VI, 1901 – 1902
- Paku Alam VII, 1903 – 1938
- Paku Alam VIII, 1938 – 1999
- Paku Alam IX, 1999 – 2015
- Paku Alam X, 2016 – present
Meaning of Paku Alam
The name Paku Alam translates literally into "Nail of the universe" or "Nail of the world" in English (paku means "nail" and alam means "universe" or "world").
- Reitsma, S. A. (1930). Van Stockum's Traveller's Handbook: For the Dutch East Indies. W.P. Van Stockum & Son, Limited.
- The Java Gazette: ... A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Travel and Trade. British Chamber of Commerce for the Netherlands East Indies. 1933.
- 'Inilah Sosok Pak Alam X' [This is Pak Alam X], Kompas, 7 January 2015. Also Bambang Muryanto and Slamet Susanto, 'Pakualam has a new monarch', The Jakarta Post, 7 January 2015.
- M. C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, Vol. 2, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, 113–114.
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