List of Maryland hurricanes (1950–present)

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Hurricane Isabel, one of the most significant storms to affect the region, on September 18, 2003

Since 1950, 98 known hurricanes, tropical storms and tropical depressions have affected the U.S. state of Maryland. Many of these storms also affect the country's capital, Washington, D.C., since the city is located on territory ceded by Maryland. Hurricanes are the most intense classification of these storms, while tropical storms and tropical depressions are generally weaker. The Delmarva Peninsula is often affected by cyclones that brush the East Coast.[1] Central and Western Maryland, as well as Washington, D.C., commonly receive rainfall from the remnants of storms that make landfall elsewhere and track northward.[2] On rare occasions, the area experiences the effects of Pacific storms; one such example of this is Hurricane Tico, which made landfall on Mexico and moved inland.

Hurricane Agnes of the 1972 season was the deadliest storm, killing 19 people as a result of heavy flooding. The most damaging storm was Hurricane Irene, which resulted in $151 million in damage. Hurricane Hazel caused sustained hurricane-force winds (winds of 75 mph (121 km/h) or greater) in the state, the only storm during the time period to do so.[3] No storms made landfall in Maryland at hurricane intensity. Since 1950, ten tropical cyclones have collectively killed 58 people

1950–1959[edit]

Hurricane Dog track
  • September 9, 1950 – Outer moisture from Hurricane Dog drops heavy rainfall in the Mid-Atlantic. In Bel Air, a car drove into the swollen Gunpowder River; three people in the car drowned and a fourth was injured.[4]
  • September 1, 1952 – Tropical Storm Able crosses the state, although damage, if any, is unknown.[5]
  • October 15, 1954 – Hurricane Hazel crosses the state, producing hurricane-force winds.[3] In addition to wind damage, flooding was severe along the Chesapeake Bay, while flash flooding was reported inland.[6] Overall, six deaths and about $11 million in damage were reported.[7]
  • August 12, 1955 – Tropical Storm Connie makes landfall in southern Maryland, dropping heavy rainfall peaking at 12.32 in (313 mm) in Preston.[2] The rainfall leads to flooding which causes $2.5 million in damage. When the schooner Levin J. Marvel capsizes in high seas, 14 people drown.[8]
  • August 18, 1955 – As Tropical Storm Diane begins its turn to the east-northeast over Virginia, associated heavy rains, combined with saturated grounds from Connie just days before, cause flooding in central parts of the state, especially along the Potomac River.[6]
  • September 19, 1955 – Hurricane Ione makes landfall in North Carolina; its outer moisture produces light rainfall across the state.[9]
  • September 28, 1956 – Hurricane Flossy passes southeast of the state, producing up to 3.30 in (84 mm) of rain. In nearby Washington, D.C., a peak wind gust of 45 mph (72 km/h) is reported.[10]
  • September 28, 1958 – Hurricane Helene remains well off of the Carolina coast, though light rain falls across the Mid-Atlantic states.[11]
  • September 30, 1959 – The remnants of Hurricane Gracie drop moderate rainfall over western Maryland.[2]

1960–1969[edit]

  • July 30, 1960 – Tropical Storm Brenda crosses southeastern Maryland. The storm's rainfall causes flooding in St. Mary's County.[7]
  • September 12, 1960 – Hurricane Donna passes just offshore, producing wind gusts of over 100 mph (160 km/h) in Ocean City.[12] Flooding along the eastern shore causes two deaths.[7]
  • September 21, 1961 – Hurricane Esther moves northward, parallel to the coast. Wind gusts to 45 mph (70 km/h) are observed at Ocean City, and storm surge flooding causes damage to the city's sea wall and boardwalk.[13]
Camille rainfall map

1970–1979[edit]

Remnants of Agnes over northeastern United States
  • August 28, 1971 – Tropical Storm Doria parallels the east coast, resulting in tides 2.7 feet (0.8 m) above normal in Fort McHenry.[18]
  • September 13, 1971 – Tropical Storm Heidi passes offshore, dropping 2.86 in (73 mm) of rain in parts of the state.[2]
  • Early October, 1971 – The remnants of Hurricane Ginger make landfall in North Carolina, turn north-northeast, and brush southern Maryland with light rainfall.[19]
  • June 2, 1972 – Heavy rainfall from Tropical Storm Agnes, combined with a separate low to the west,[2] contribute to the state's worst flooding in 36 years. Severe damage and at least 19 deaths are reported throughout the region.[7][20] Throughout the state, 1,930 were damaged, of which 103 were destroyed. 17 farm buildings were destroyed and 44 damaged, and 82 small businesses were destroyed. Total damage is estimated at $80 million.[8]
  • September 3, 1972 – Tropical Storm Carrie remains well offshore, though its outer bands drop light precipitation across the southern Delmarva Peninsula.[2]
  • September 23 – September 26, 1975 – Hurricane Eloise becomes an extratropical frontal low over Virginia. The storm's moisture drops 14.23 in (361 mm) of rain in Westminster,[2] causing severe flooding, particularly in the Monocacy and Patapsco River basins.[7][21]
  • October 27, 1975 – Tropical Storm Hallie becomes extratropical to the east of the state; light rain falls over the southern Delmarva Peninsula.[2]
  • August 9, 1976 – Hurricane Belle parallels the east coast, prompting hurricane warnings for the coastline. The center of the storm passes to the east of the state, producing wind gusts of around 70 mph (110 km/h) at Ocean City.[22]
  • Mid-September 1976 – Subtropical Storm Three becomes extratropical to the south of the state. The resulting low moves northward, dropping moderate rainfall.[2]
  • July 29 – July 31, 1979 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Claudette drop light, spotty rainfall in southern areas.[23]
  • September 5, 1979 – Tropical Storm David crosses the western part of the state, dropping up to 9.40 in (239 mm) of rainfall.[2] Associated bands spawn seven tornadoes throughout the state.[24] One of the tornadoes strikes near Crofton, causing tree and structure damage, as well as one injury.[25]

1980–1989[edit]

Hurricane Gloria moving away from the Maryland coast on September 27
  • July 25, 1985 – The remnants of Hurricane Bob cause moderate rainfall in southern Maryland, and light wind gusts.[2] Rough seas from the system capsize a few boats along the Potomac River, and the rainfall collapses a house under construction in Great Falls, Maryland.[29]
  • August 18, 1985 – Remnant moisture from Hurricane Danny drops up to 7 in (180 mm) of rain on the Delmarva Peninsula, although damage, if any is unknown.[30]
  • September 24, 1985 – Tropical Storm Henri parallels the coastline, dropping light rainfall.[2]
  • September 27, 1985 – Hurricane Gloria passes east of Maryland and drops over 7 in (180 mm) of rain. Wind gusts to 40 mph (64 km/h) blast the coastline, causing beach erosion.[31]
  • August 18, 1986 – Hurricane Charley tracks just miles offshore, spawning wind gusts up to 35 mph (56 km/h).[32] The storm also drops up to 4.50 in (114 mm) of rain in Maryland.[2]
  • September, 1987 – Tropical Depression Nine produces up to 5 in (130 mm) of rainfall throughout the area.[33]
  • August 28, 1988 – The state receives light rainfall caused by Tropical Storm Chris.[2]
  • Mid-October, 1989 – The remnants of Hurricane Jerry track eastward off the Mid-Atlantic coast, dropping light amounts of rainfall in northern locales.[2]

1990–1994[edit]

  • Mid-October, 1990 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Marco produce moderate rainfall in western locations.[34]
  • August 19, 1991 – Hurricane Bob passes 90 mi (140 km) offshore, producing waves of up to 12 ft (3.7 m) high.[35]
  • Late August, 1992 – Remnant moisture from Hurricane Andrew produces up to 2.70 in (69 mm) of rain in western areas of the state.[2]
Radar image of Tropical Storm Danielle making landfall
  • September 25, 1992 – Tropical Storm Danielle makes landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula, producing winds of 53 mph (85 km/h) in Ocean City. Storm tide ranges from an estimated storm tide of 2–3 feet (0.6–0.9 m).[36] The storm produces moderate rainfall of over 3 inches (76 mm) across the Eastern Shore of Maryland.[37]
  • September 1, 1993 – Uncertainty in the track of Hurricane Emily track prompts voluntary evacuations of Ocean City, although the storm quickly turns away from the state.[38]
  • July 21, 1994 – Tropical Depression Two passes just west of the western border with light precipitation.[39]
  • August 18, 1994 – Tropical Storm Beryl's remnants track over western Maryland, producing light rainfall.[40]
  • November 20, 1994 – Hurricane Gordon dissipates over South Carolina, dropping light to moderate rainfall over the southern Delmarva Peninsula.[41]

1995–1999[edit]

  • June 6, 1995 – The remnants of Hurricane Allison produce light showers in some locations, amounting to less than an inch.[2]
  • August 6, 1995 – Remnant moisture from Hurricane Erin produces 4.53 in (115 mm) of rainfall in Chestertown.[2]
  • October 3, 1995 – The remnants of Hurricane Opal track well west of Maryland, producing light rainfall across the entire state.[2] Moderate winds downed trees and tree limbs onto Maryland Route 495.[42] The system spawns numerous tornadoes, the most notable of which contains winds of 150 mph (240 km/h); this particular tornado results in three injuries and damages over 100 homes.[43]
Hurricane Fran affecting Maryland while making landfall
  • July 13, 1996 – Tropical Storm Bertha passes over the state producing wind gusts peaking at 63 mph (101 km/h) at Ocean City. Several trees and power lines are downed resulting in scattered power outages and property damage. In Dorchester, one tornado is confirmed. Also, rainfall of up to 5 in (130 mm) causes some street flooding.[44]
  • September 6, 1996 – Tropical Storm Fran tracks west of the state, spawning wind gusts of up to 55 mph (89 km/h) which, combined with saturated soil, downs numerous trees.[45] Along the Chesapeake Bay, a storm surge of up to 6 ft (1.8 m) inundates coastal communities.[46] This causes tidal flooding which results in one injury and forces several people to evacuate.[47] The heavy rainfall severely floods the Potomac River, damaging over 500 homes and destroying nearly 450 acres (1.8 km2) of corn and soy crops.[48] As a result of Fran, one death is reported,[49] and $50 million (1996 USD, $68 million 2008 USD) in damage is blamed on the storm.[50]
  • October 8, 1996 – Moisture from Tropical Storm Josephine moves northward along the East Coast. Up to 3.5 in (89 mm) of rainfall is reported, resulting in the flooding of numerous roads. The Coast Guard station in Ocean City records a wind gust of 77 mph (124 km/h) which results in several downed trees and power lines. The winds break loose a 160 ft (49 m) barge from its moorings.[51]
  • July 24, 1997 – Tropical Storm Danny passes south of the state, dropping up to 5 in (130 mm) in southernmost locations.[52] Because of a previous drought, there are no reports of flooding except for minor drainage ditch overflows.[53]
  • August 5, 1998 – The remnants of Hurricane Earl track south of the state, producing light rainfall on the Delmarva Peninsula.[2]
  • August 28, 1998 – Assateague Island reports 2.37 in (60 mm) of rainfall from Hurricane Bonnie which tracks offshore in the Atlantic.[2]
  • September 4, 1999 – The remnants of Hurricane Dennis drop heavy rainfall which surpasses 4 in (100 mm) and flooding.[2] On the coast of Maryland, tides were up to 3 ft (0.91 m) above average.[54] In Havre de Grace, four people were seriously injured when a car crossed the median and slammed into an oncoming vehicle, which is blamed on heavy rainfall.[55] Two or more lightning strikes leave over 6,700 people without power.[54]
Rainfall from Hurricane Floyd affecting the state
  • September 15, 1999 – Hurricane Floyd parallels the shore of the Delmarva Peninsula as a tropical storm. Chestertown, reports a maximum rainfall total of 14 inches (350 mm), with other locales reporting similar values.[56] Extreme river flooding causes moderate damage to bridges and roads, resulting in a damage toll of $7.9 million (1999 USD, $10 million 2008 USD) throughout the state.[57] In addition, over 250,000 residents are without electricity because of high winds blowing down power lines.[58] More than 28 people are forced to be rescued by boat as a result of severe flooding. Nine other people were from an apartment building near Great Mills. Two people are injured and one person is killed by carbon monoxide after losing power and running a generator inside their home. Also, a 12‑year-old boy is caught in flood waters and is swept a half mile (800 m) down a drainage ditch before being rescued and treated for hypothermia.[58]
  • October 17, 1999 – Showers from Hurricane Irene are reported, totaling to 1.29 in (33 mm) in some places.[2]

2000–2004[edit]

  • September 19, 2000 – The remnants of Hurricane Gordon track over the Delmarva Peninsula, producing up to 2.17 in (55 mm) of rainfall, mainly to the east of the center.[2]
  • June 16, 2001 – The weakening Tropical Storm Allison tracks northward along the U.S. East Coast, passing southeast of the state. Rainfall from Allison totaled to 7.5 inches (190 mm) in Denton, closing eleven roads and causing washouts on 41 others.[59]
  • September 11, 2002 – The pressure gradient between a strong high pressure system in the central United States and Hurricane Gustav located east of the state result in gusty winds, peaking at 44 mph (71 km/h) at Tolchester Beach. The winds damage tree limbs and caused power outages to 3,000 customers, although it was quickly restored.[60]
  • September 27, 2002 – As the remnants of Hurricane Isidore track northward through the Ohio Valley, it produces light to moderate showers in northern and central Maryland.[2]
  • October 11, 2002—Remnant moisture from Hurricane Kyle produces moderate rainfall, reaching 4.03 in (102 mm) in Salisbury.[2]
Storm surge flooding caused by Isabel in Bowleys Quarters, Maryland
  • July 3, 2003 – Rainfall peaking at 4 in (100 mm) falls in association with the remnants of Tropical Storm Bill.[61] In northern and central Dorchester County, several secondary roads are closed due to heavy rainfall and flooding.[62]
  • September 4, 2003 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Grace drop up to 5 in (130 mm) of rain in western areas of the state, although there are no reports of damage.[63]
  • September 14, 2003 – The remnant moisture from Tropical Storm Henri produce light rainfall over the state.[64]
  • September 17, 2003 – Hurricane Isabel tracks south and west of the state, causing moderate to severe damage. Along the Eastern Shore, the hurricane produces a storm surge peaking at 8 feet (2.4 m) on the Chesapeake Bay side in Hoopers Island and 6.5 feet (2 m) on the Atlantic coast in Ocean City.[65] The large size of Isabel causes strong winds across the area, including maximum sustained winds of 52 mph (84 km/h) and a gust of 66 mph (106 km/h) in Cambridge.[65] Over 1.4 million people throughout the state lose electric power at some point during the storm.[66] One death in Maryland is attributed to the hurricane, and over 200 injuries are reported. In all, damage is estimated at over $530 million (2003 USD, $621 million 2008 USD).[66] Winds sensors in Washington, D.C. report winds of up to 85 mph (137 km/h), which causes $125 million (2003 USD, $146 million 2008 USD) in damage.[67]
  • August 12, 2004 – Remnant moisture from Tropical Storm Bonnie drops light rainfall across portions of the state.[2]
  • August 30, 2004 – Hurricane Gaston tracks east of the state, producing light rainfall along the eastern shore.[2]
  • September 3, 2004 – The remnants of Hurricane Frances produce over 6 in (150 mm) of rain in some locations, although there are no reports of damage.[2]
  • September 19, 2004 – The remnants of Hurricane Ivan drop up to 3.83 in (97 mm) of rainfall, particularly in western areas.[2] The system also results in several tornadoes, one of which is reported to have killed an elderly woman and her daughter when a tree fell on their home in Cecil County.[68][69]
  • September 28, 2004 – The remnants of Hurricane Jeanne spawn a waterspout which moves ashore as a tornado and damages a visitor center, tearing part of the roof off the structure and landing it on Maryland Route 2. The hurricane drops up to 4 in (100 mm) of rainfall which results in widespread minor to moderate flooding.[2] In total over 50 roads were closed due to flooding, and a group of inmates were rescued from the roof of a security van.[70]

2005–2009[edit]

  • July 8, 2005 – The extratropical remnants of Hurricane Cindy drop upwards of 7 in (180 mm) in the state,[71] and spawn one tornado.[72] which causes sporadic tree damage.[73] The rainfall causes flooding in some locations, leaving numerous roads underwater,[74] and flooding several basements.[75]
  • July 9, 2005 – The remnants of Hurricane Dennis produce widespread light rainfall across much of the state.[76]
  • October 8, 2005 – A combination of the remnants of Tropical Storm Tammy and Subtropical Depression Twenty-Two contribute to the Northeast U.S. flooding of October 2005, which produces up to 9 in (230 mm) of rainfall.[77] Dozens of roads are flooded and closed, and about 30 people are forced from their homes. Flood waters reach up to 6 ft (1.8 m) as reported by a local newspaper. Damage is estimated at $200,000 (2005 USD, $220,000 2008 USD).[78]
  • June 14, 2006—The remnants of Tropical Storm Alberto drop light rainfall in southern locations.[2]
  • September 1–2, 2006 – High winds and heavy rainfall from Hurricane Ernesto leaves 44,000 homes without electric power, mostly in low-lying areas of southern locations and on the eastern shore. Several basements in Anne Arundel County are forced to be pumped out due to flooding. It is estimated that wind gusts peaked at 50 mph (80 km/h).[79]
  • June 3, 2007 – Tropical Storm Barry produces light rainfall over eastern portions of the state, peaking at 2.30 in (58 mm) near Columbia.[2]
  • September 15, 2007 – The remnants of Hurricane Humberto drop light rainfall in extreme southern locations.[80]
  • September 6, 2008 – Tropical Storm Hanna moved over the area from the south, dropping over 4 inches of rain in parts of Maryland and producing wind gusts to 50 MPH in Southern Maryland.[81][82]

2010–2014[edit]

  • September 3, 2010 – Hurricane Earl skimmed the coast of North Carolina and moved northeastward, resulting in heavy rain and tropical storm force winds in Southeastern Maryland, near Ocean City. Areas inland were not affected by Earl.
  • August 27, 2011 – Hurricane Irene did not make direct landfall, but due to the large size, hurricane conditions were felt to the east of the Chesapeake Bay and tropical storm conditions were felt as far inland as Frederick, MD. Along the Delmarva Peninsula, sustained winds of 60 mph with gusts up to 85 mph and over a foot of rain fell over the area. There was also a five-foot storm surge that inundated regions around Ocean City, MD. The beach was evacuated prior to the storm; due to the minimal damage, it reopened the next day on Sunday and residents and tourists were allowed to return.[83] In Central Maryland, sustained winds of 30-40 mph and 3-5 inches of rain fell. Gusts of up to 65 mph toppled many power lines. Most of the damage was from falling trees, which blocked roads, crushed power lines, and toppled onto houses. Power was out for over 200,000 people in Maryland; however, by Sunday, most power was restored.[84]
  • September 7–10, 2011 – The remnants of Tropical Storm Lee move across Maryland, causing widespread flooding, particularly in western Maryland.[85]
  • October 29, 2012 – Hurricane Sandy makes landfall north of the state. However, due to the tremendous size of the storm, its effects were felt all over Maryland. During the peak of the storm, 60 mph sustained winds were felt from Frederick, Maryland eastward. However, power outages were not widespread and any problems were solved quickly due to better preparation. Heavy rain affected the state, with up to a foot of rain falling in some spots. Storm surge was also a large factor along the beaches, washing out many piers and some boardwalks along Ocean City. Hurricane Sandy is the deadliest tropical cyclone to affect the state, causing 11 deaths.[86]
  • June 7, 2013 – Rain bands from Tropical Storm Andrea cause minor flooding in the Baltimore-Washington area and parts of the Eastern Shore, with rainfall totals of just over two inches in Annapolis and Baltimore-Washington International Airport, both in Anne Arundel County.[87][88] Andrea is a post-tropical system by the time the center moves over St. Mary's County and the lower Eastern Shore, which was under a tornado watch at the time due to the system's history of producing tornadoes.[87]
  • July 4, 2014 – Hurricane Arthur's outskirts brought heavy rain and winds in excess of 40 MPH to areas such as Ocean City and Salisbury, Maryland. Areas further inland were not impacted by the storm.[89]

2015–present[edit]

Monthly statistics[edit]

Number of recorded storms affecting Maryland and Washington, D.C. 1980 to Present
Month Number of storms
May
2
June
10
July
11
August
18
September
41
October
15
November
1

Deadly storms[edit]

The following table includes all storms since 1950 that have caused reported fatalities in Maryland and Washington, D.C.

Total deaths
Name Year Number
of deaths
Hurricane Agnes 1972 19
Hurricane Connie 1955 14
Hurricane Sandy 2012 11
Hurricane Hazel 1954 6
Hurricane Donna 1960 2
Hurricane Ivan 2004 2
Hurricane Fran 1996 1
Hurricane Floyd 1999 1
Hurricane Isabel 2003 1
Hurricane Irene 2011 1

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropical Prediction Center. "Best Track Analysis". Unisys Corporation. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Roth, David M; Weather Prediction Center (2012). "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall in the Mid-Atlantic United States". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved June 23, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2007". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  4. ^ Lowell Sun (1950-09-12). "Hurricane Misses Nantucket". 
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  43. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2) (1995). "Hurricane Opal Event Report for Maryland". Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
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  54. ^ a b National Climatic Data Center (1999). "Hurricane Dennis Event Report for Maryland". Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  55. ^ David S. Fallis & Linda Perlstein (1999-09-06). "Dennis Rains More Trouble As It Fades". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
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  59. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2001). "Tropical Storm Allison Event Report for Maryland". Retrieved 2006-05-26. 
  60. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2002). "Hurricane Gustav Event Report for Maryland". Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  61. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Tropical Storm Bill Event Report for Maryland". Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  62. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Tropical Storm Bill Event Report for Maryland (2)". Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
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