List of Narcissus species
|Narcissus poeticus L.|
This list of Narcissus species shows the accepted species names within the genus Narcissus (//), which are predominantly spring perennial plants in the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family. Various common names including daffodil, narcissus, and jonquil are used to describe all or some members of the genus. The list of species is arranged by subgenus and section. Estimates of the number of species in Narcissus have varied widely, from anywhere between 16 and nearly 160, even in the modern era. Linnaeus originally included six species in 1753.
Much of the variation lies in the definition of species, and whether closely related taxa are considered separate species or subspecies. Thus, a very wide view of each species, such as Webb's results in few species, while a very narrow view such as that of Fernandes results in a larger number. Another factor is the status of hybrids, given natural hybridisation. There is a distinction between what are referred to as 'ancient hybrids' which are found occurring over a relatively large area, and 'recent hybrids' with a more restricted range and found growing as solitary plants amongst their parents. The former are more often considered as separate species.
Fernandes (1951) accepted 22 species, on which were based the 27 species listed by Webb in the 1980 Flora Europaea. By 1968, Fernandes had accepted 63 species, and by 1990 Blanchard listed 65 species, and Erhardt 66 in 1993. In 2006 the International Daffodil Register listed 87 species. In contrast, the genetic study by Zonneveld (2008) resulted in only 36 species (for list and comparison with Webb, see Zonneveld Table 4).
As of September 2014[update], the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 52 species, along with at least 60 hybrids. Another important source is the Royal Horticultural Society's Botanical Classification and list of botanical names (October 2014) which is the basis of their International Daffodil Register. This is a searchable list and had 81 accepted names in its October 2014 release.
Table of Narcissus species
Over 300 synonymous species names are listed, reflecting wide variations in how the genus is divided into species. These have been arranged into Sections. These should not be confused with the horticultural classification of cultivars into divisions by the Royal Horticultural Society 
- Apodanthi (N. calcicola)
- Bulbocodium (N. bulbocodium)
- Ganymedes (N. triandrus)
- Jonquillae (N. jonquilla)
- Juncifolii (N. assoanus)
- Narcissus (N. poeticus)
- Nevadensis (N. nevadensis)
- Pseudonarcissus (N. pseudonarcissus)
- Tapeinanthus (N. cavanillesii)
- Serotini (N. serotinus)
- Tazettae (N. tazetta)
For a list of species by Section according to the Royal Horticultural Society, see the RHS Botanical Classification (updated September 2013), which is the basis of their International Daffodil Register.
|Subgenus Hermione (Haw.) Spach.|
Type species: N. tazetta
|Section Aurelia (Gay) Baker|
Narcissus broussonetii (incorporated into Tazettae, 2008)
|Section Serotini Parlatore|
syn. N. miniatus
Donnison-Morgan, Koopowitz & Zonneveld
|West, north and eastern|
|L.||Spain, NW Africa|
|Section Tazettae de Candolle|
|Narcissus broussonetii[notes 1]||Lag. y Seg.||North Africa|
|Narcissus dubius||Gouan||NW Spain, S France|
|Narcissus elegans||(Haw.) Spach||Image||Western Mediterranean|
syn. N. barlae
|Paperwhite||NW Africa, West and north Mediterranean|
|Subgenus Narcissus L.|
Type species: N. poeticus
|Section Apodanthi A.Fernandes|
|Narcissus albimarginatus||D.Müll.-Doblies & U.Müll.-Doblies||Image||Morocco|
syn. N. atlanticus
|Dufour ex Schult.f.
N. cuatrecasasii Fern.Casas (moved to Jonquillae)
|Section Bulbocodium de Candolle|
|L.||Hoop-petticoat daffodil||France, Spain|
|Narcissus cantabricus||DC.||White Hoop-petticoat Daffodil||Spain, NW Africa|
|Narcissus foliosus||(Maire) Fern.Casas||Image||Morocco|
|Narcissus hedraeanthus||(Webb & Heldr.) Colmeiro|
|Narcissus nivalis||Graells||Image||Spain, Portugal|
|Narcissus romieuxii||Braun-Blanq. & Maire||Morocco|
|Section Ganymedes (Haworth) Schultes f.|
|Narcissus lusitanicus||Dorda & Fern. Casas||Portugal|
syn. N. cernuus[notes 2]
|Narcissus triandrus[notes 3]
|Section Jonquilla de Candolle[notes 4]|
syn. N. flavus[notes 5]
|Zonn. stat. nov.
|Narcissus cuatrecasasii[notes 6]||Fern.Casas, Lainz & Ruiz Rejon||Spain, Morocco|
|Section Juncifolii (A. Fern.) Zonn. sect nov.[notes 7]|
|Dufour||Rush-leaf jonquil|||||E Spain, S France|
|Narcissus gaditanus||Boiss. & Reuter|
|Section Narcissus L.|
|L.||Poet's Narcissus||Central Europe|
|Section Nevadensis Zonn. sect. nov [notes 8]|
|Narcissus bujei[notes 9]||Fern. Casas||Image||Southern Spain|
|Narcissus longispathus[notes 10]||Pugsley||Southern Spain|
|Section Pseudonarcissus de Candolle[notes 11]
|Narcissus abscissus||(Haw.) Roem. & Schult.f.||Image||Spain, S France|
|Narcissus asturiensis||(Jord.) Pugsley||North Spain, Portugal|
|Narcissus cyclamineus||DC.||Cyclamen-flowered Daffodil||Portugal, NW Spain|
|Narcissus jacetanus||Fern.Casas||North east Spain|
|Narcissus primigenius||(Fern.Suárez ex M.Laínz) Fern.Casas & Laínz||Image|
|Section Tapeinanthus (Herbert) Traub|
|Narcissus cavanillesii||Barra & G.López||Portugal, Spain, NW Africa|
Intersectional hybrids (Nothospecies)
- Narcissus x alleniæ Donnison-Morgan (N. obsoletus × N. viridiflorus)
- Narcissus x obsoletus (Haw.) Spach (N. elegans × N. serotinus)[notes 12]
- Narcissus × medioluteus syn. N. biflorus
- Taxonomy of Narcissus
- List of Narcissus horticultural divisions
- List of AGM narcissus - species and cultivars which have won the RHS Award of Garden Merit
- List of Narcissus species (Spanish version)
- Moved from Aurelia
- Not currently accepted by The Plant List, which lists it as a synonym of N. cernuus Salisb., which is listed by Mathews as a variety of N. triandrus.
- N. lusitanicus and N. pallidulus originally considered subspecies or varieties of N. triandrus. However both Zonnefeld (2008), together with Dorda and Fernandez Casas (1989) and Perez-Barrales et al. (2006) find sufficient evidence to consider these to be separate species
- N. assoanus Dufour ex Schult. & Schult.f. and N. gaditanus Boiss. & Reut. were previously included in Jonquilla but were moved to Juncifolii in 2008 when this was split off (Zonneveld 2008)
- N. flavus is the accepted name according to The Plant List, but Zonneveld, who described the taxon, disputes this. (Akers 2011)
- Moved from Apodanthi (Zonneveld 2008)
- Fernandes considered this a subsection of Jonquilla
- Although Aedo in the Flora Iberica considered these to all be Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. subsp. nevadensis (Pugsley) A. Fern., (Aedo 2014) Medrano et al. criticised this approach for ignoring phylogenetic evidence to the contrary, and their data support the differentiation into these three species. (Medrano 2014)
- While the World Checklist considers this to be a synonym of N. longispathus, Zonneveld treated it as a separate species on the basis of DNA content
- Moved from Pseudonarcissus (Zonneveld 2008)
- The taxonomy and speciation of Section Pseudonarcissus, the largest section, has proved particularly problematic, even after splitting it into two. Zonneveld subdivided the section into two sections Pseudonarcissus (France, northern Spain and Portugal) and Nevadensis (southern Spain). Opinions as to the number of species varies considerably, from considering the section as a single variable species to a section with a very large number of species. Zonneveld accepted eight, with those taxa having similar amounts of DNA considered as either synonyms or subspecies. He accepted eight subspecies.(Zonneveld 2008) Mathew considered there to be two groups, which he labelled A (small flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter) and B (large flowers, 5–12 cm in diameter).(Hanks 2002, Mathew B. Classification of the genus Narcissus. pp. 30–52.)
- Accepted as species by World Checklist, but see Zonnefeld
- Linnaeus 1753.
- Haworth 1831.
- Blanchard 1990.
- Zonneveld 2008.
- Webb 1980.
- Fernandes, A. (1968). "Keys to the identification of native and naturalized taxa of the genus Narcissus L." (vol. 33). Daffodil and Tulip Year Book. pp. 37–66. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- Mathew, B (2003-09-02). Classification of the genus Narcissus. pp. 30–52. ISBN 9780203219355. Retrieved 2 October 2014. In Hanks (2002)
- Fernandes, A (1951). "Sur la phylogenie des especes du genre Narcissus L." Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana II. 25: 113–190. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- Erhardt 1993.
- "Narcissus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
- "Botanical Classification". Royal Horticultural Society. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Botanical names in the genus Narcissus". Royal Horticultural Society. October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Daffodil cultivar registration". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Search The International Daffodil Register & Classified List". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
- "Narcissus", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2014-09-10
- Royal Horticultural Society System of Classification
- Zonneveld, B. J. M. (24 September 2008). "The systematic value of nuclear DNA content for all species of Narcissus L. (Amaryllidaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 275 (1–2): 109–132. doi:10.1007/s00606-008-0015-1.
- RHS Botanical Classification
- * Fernández-Casas, Francisco Javier (2011). "Narcissorum Notulae, XXXI" (PDF). Fontqueria. 56 (26): 239–248. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- Aedo, C (2014). "Narcissus L." (PDF). In Talavera, S; Andrés, C; Arista, M; Fernández Piedra, MP; Rico, E; Crespo, MB; Quintanar, A; Herrero, A; Aedo, C (eds.). Flora Iberica. Vol 20 (in Spanish). Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Blanchard, J. W. (1990). Narcissus: a guide to wild daffodils. Surrey, UK: Alpine Garden Society. ISBN 978-0-900048-53-1.
- Erhardt, Walter (1993). Narzissen: Osterglocken, Jonquillen, Tazetten (in German). Stuttgart (Hohenheim): E. Ulmer. ISBN 978-3-8001-6489-9. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- Hanks, Gordon R (2002). Narcissus and Daffodil: The Genus Narcissus. London: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-27344-2. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Haworth, A.H. (1831). Narcissinearum Monographia (PDF) (2nd. ed.). London: Ridgway. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Linnaeus, Carl (1753). Species Plantarum vol. 1. p. 289. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Tutin, T. G.; Heywood, V H; Burges, N. A.; Moore, D. M.; Valentine, D. H.; Walters, S. M.; Webb, D. A., eds. (1980). Flora Europaea. Volume 5, Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (monocotyledones). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 20108 X. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Webb, D. A. (1980-04-03). Narcissus L. pp. 78–84. ISBN 9780521201087. Retrieved 4 October 2014., in Tutin et al (1980)
- Medrano, Mónica; López-Perea, Esmeralda; Herrera, Carlos M. (2014). "Population Genetics Methods Applied to a Species Delimitation Problem: Endemic Trumpet Daffodils (Narcissus Section Pseudonarcissi) from the Southern Iberian Peninsula" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 175 (5, June): 501–517. doi:10.1086/675977. hdl:10261/101673.
- Zonneveld, B. J. M. (2008). "The systematic value of nuclear DNA content for all species of Narcissus L. (Amaryllidaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 275 (1–2): 109–132. doi:10.1007/s00606-008-0015-1.
- Akers, J. (2011). "Narcissus flavus" (October 10). Daffnet. American Daffodil Society. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- "Daffodils". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "DaffSeek - Daffodil Database with Photos". American Daffodil Society. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
- "Narcissus". The Plant List (2013). Version 1.1. 2013. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- "Narcissus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 16 October 2014.