List of Narcissus species

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Narcissus
(Daffodil)
Temporal range: 24–0 Ma
Late Oligocene - Recent
Narcissus poeticus blooming in Styria, Austria
Narcissus poeticus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Amaryllidoideae
Tribe: Narcisseae
Genus: Narcissus
L.[1]
Type species
Narcissus poeticus L.
Subgenera
  • Hermione
  • Narcissus

This list of Narcissus species shows the accepted species names within the genus Narcissus (/nɑːrˈsɪsəs/), which are predominantly spring perennial plants in the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family. Various common names including daffodil, narcissus, and jonquil are used to describe all or some members of the genus. The list of species is arranged by subgenus and section. Estimates of the number of species in Narcissus have varied widely, from anywhere between 16 and nearly 160,[2][3][4] even in the modern era. Linnaeus originally included six species in 1753.

Much of the variation lies in the definition of species, and whether closely related taxa are considered separate species or subspecies. Thus, a very wide view of each species, such as Webb's[5] results in few species, while a very narrow view such as that of Fernandes[6] results in a larger number.[7] Another factor is the status of hybrids, given natural hybridisation. There is a distinction between what are referred to as 'ancient hybrids' which are found occurring over a relatively large area, and 'recent hybrids' with a more restricted range and found growing as solitary plants amongst their parents. The former are more often considered as separate species.[4]

Fernandes (1951) accepted 22 species,[8] on which were based the 27 species listed by Webb in the 1980 Flora Europaea.[5] By 1968, Fernandes had accepted 63 species,[6] and by 1990 Blanchard listed 65 species,[3] and Erhardt 66 in 1993.[9] In 2006 the International Daffodil Register listed 87 species. In contrast, the genetic study by Zonneveld (2008) resulted in only 36 species (for list and comparison with Webb, see Zonneveld Table 4).[4]

As of September 2014, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 52 species, along with at least 60 hybrids.[10] Another important source is the Royal Horticultural Society's Botanical Classification[11] and list of botanical names (October 2014)[12] which is the basis of their International Daffodil Register.[13] This is a searchable list[14] and had 81 accepted names in its October 2014 release.[12]

Table of Narcissus species[edit]

Over 300 synonymous species names are listed, reflecting wide variations in how the genus is divided into species.[15] These have been arranged into Sections. These should not be confused with the horticultural classification of cultivars into divisions by the Royal Horticultural Society [16]

Sections (with type species) shown are according to Zonneveld (2008).[17] In addition Mathew (2002) further divides the sections into subsections.[7]

  • Apodanthi (N. calcicola)
  • Bulbocodium (N. bulbocodium)
  • Ganymedes (N. triandrus)
  • Jonquillae (N. jonquilla)
  • Juncifolii (N. assoanus)
  • Narcissus (N. poeticus)
  • Nevadensis (N. nevadensis)
  • Pseudonarcissus (N. pseudonarcissus)
  • Tapeinanthus (N. cavanillesii)
  • Serotini (N. serotinus)
  • Tazettae (N. tazetta)

For a list of species by Section according to the Royal Horticultural Society, see the RHS Botanical Classification (updated September 2013), which is the basis of their International Daffodil Register.[18]

Name Authority Common name Image Distribution
Subgenus Hermione (Haw.) Spach.
Type species: N. tazetta
Section Aurelia (Gay) Baker
Narcissus broussonetii (incorporated into Tazettae, 2008[4])
Section Serotini Parlatore
Narcissus obsoletus
syn. N. miniatus
(Haw.) Spach
Donnison-Morgan, Koopowitz & Zonneveld
Flowers of Narcissus obsoletus West, north and eastern
Mediterranean basin
Map
Narcissus serotinus
Type species
L. Flower of Narcissus serotinus Spain, NW Africa
Distribution map of Narcissus serotinus
Additional map
Section Tazettae de Candolle
Narcissus broussonetii[notes 1][4] Lag. y Seg. Flowers of Narcissus broussonetii North Africa
Map
Narcissus dubius Gouan Flowers of Narcissus dubius NW Spain, S France
Distribution map of Narcissus dubius
Additional map
Narcissus elegans (Haw.) Spach Image Western Mediterranean
Map
Narcissus papyraceus
syn. N. barlae
Ker Gawl.
Parlatore
Paperwhite Flowers of Narcissus papyraceus NW Africa, West and north Mediterranean
Distribution map of Narcissus papyraceus
Additional map
Narcissus tazetta
Type species
L. Flowers of Narcissus tazetta Mediterranean basin,
Middle East
Map
Subgenus Narcissus L.
Type species: N. poeticus
Section Apodanthi A.Fernandes
Narcissus albimarginatus D.Müll.-Doblies & U.Müll.-Doblies Image Morocco
Map
Narcissus calcicola
Type species
Mendonça Flower of Narcissus calcicola Distribution map of Narcissus calcicola
Narcissus rupicola
syn. N. atlanticus[4]
Dufour ex Schult.f.
Stern
Flowers of Narcissus rupicola Portugal, Spain
Morocco
Distribution map of Narcissus rupicola
Additional map
Narcissus scaberulus Henriq. Image Distribution map of Narcissus scaberulus
Previously

N. cuatrecasasii Fern.Casas (moved to Jonquillae[4])

Section Bulbocodium de Candolle
Narcissus bulbocodium
Type species
L. Hoop-petticoat daffodil Flowers of Narcissus bulbocodium France, Spain
Map
Narcissus cantabricus DC. White Hoop-petticoat Daffodil Flowers of Narcissus cantabricus Spain, NW Africa
Distribution map of Narcissus cantabricus
Additional map
Narcissus foliosus (Maire) Fern.Casas Image Morocco
Map
Narcissus hedraeanthus (Webb & Heldr.) Colmeiro Flower of Narcissus hedraeanthus Distribution map of Narcissus hedraeanthus
Narcissus nivalis Graells Image Spain, Portugal
Map
Narcissus obesus Salisb. Flower of Narcissus obesus Distribution map of Narcissus obesus
Narcissus romieuxii Braun-Blanq. & Maire Flowers of Narcissus romieuxii Morocco
Map
Doubtful
Section Ganymedes (Haworth) Schultes f.
Narcissus lusitanicus Dorda & Fern. Casas Flower of Narcissus lusitanicus Portugal
Map
Narcissus pallidulus
syn. N. cernuus[notes 2]
Graells
Salisb.
Image Spain, Portugal
Map
Narcissus triandrus[notes 3]
Type species
L. Angel's-tears Flowers of Narcissus triandrus France
Spain, Portugal
Map
Section Jonquilla de Candolle[notes 4]
Narcissus blanchardii
syn. N. flavus[notes 5]
Zonn. stat. nov.
Lag.
Image Portugal, Spain
Map
Narcissus cuatrecasasii[notes 6] Fern.Casas, Lainz & Ruiz Rejon Flower of Narcissus cuatrecasasii Spain, Morocco
Distribution map of Narcissus cuatrecasasii
Additional map
Narcissus jonquilla
Type species
L. Jonquil
Rush daffodil
Flowers of Narcissus jonquilla Distribution map of Narcissus jonquilla
Narcissus viridiflorus Schousb. Flowers of Narcissus viridiflorus Gibraltar
Morocco
Map
Section Juncifolii (A. Fern.) Zonn. sect nov.[notes 7]
Narcissus assoanus
Type species
Dufour Rush-leaf jonquil Flower of Narcissus assoanus| E Spain, S France
Distribution map of Narcissus assoanus
Additional map
Narcissus gaditanus Boiss. & Reuter Flower of Narcissus gaditanus Distribution map of Narcissus gaditanus
Section Narcissus L.
Narcissus poeticus
Type species
L. Poet's Narcissus Flower of Narcissus poeticus Central Europe
Map
Section Nevadensis Zonn. sect. nov [notes 8]
Narcissus bujei[notes 9] Fern. Casas Image Southern Spain
Narcissus longispathus[notes 10] Pugsley Narcissus longispathus.jpg Southern Spain
Map
Narcissus nevadensis
Type species
Pugsley Narcissus nevadensis.JPG Narcissus nevadensis distrib.jpg
Section Pseudonarcissus de Candolle[notes 11]


Trumpet daffodils

Narcissus abscissus (Haw.) Roem. & Schult.f. Image Spain, S France
Narcissus bicolor distrib.jpg
Additional map
Narcissus asturiensis (Jord.) Pugsley NarcissusasturiensisPicos.JPG North Spain, Portugal
Map
Narcissus cyclamineus DC. Cyclamen-flowered Daffodil Narcissus cyclamineus01.jpg Portugal, NW Spain
Map
Narcissus jacetanus Fern.Casas Narcissus jacetanus subsp. vasconicus.jpg North east Spain
Map
Narcissus moleroi Fern.Casas Image Narcissus moschatus distrib.jpg
Narcissus primigenius (Fern.Suárez ex M.Laínz) Fern.Casas & Laínz Image N pseudonarcissus distrib.jpg
Previously
  • N. alcaracensis syn. N. longispathus
  • N. confusus Pugsley syn. N. pseudonarcissus
  • N. hispanicus Gouan syn. N. pseudonarcissus (Spanish Daffodil)
  • N. longispathus (moved to Nevadensis[4])
  • N. minor syn. N. pseudonarcissus (Lesser Wild Daffodil)
  • N. moschatus syn. N. pseudonarcissus (White Daffodil)
  • N. nevadensis Pugsley (moved to Nevadensis[4])
  • N. obvallaris syn. N. pseudonarcissus (Tenby Daffodil)
  • N. radinganorum Fern. Casas syn. N. pseudonarcissus
Section Tapeinanthus (Herbert) Traub
Narcissus cavanillesii Barra & G.López Narcissus cavanillesii detail.jpg Portugal, Spain, NW Africa
Narcissus hedraeanthus distrib.jpg
Additional map

Intersectional hybrids (Nothospecies)[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Moved from Aurelia
  2. ^ Not currently accepted by The Plant List, which lists it as a synonym of N. cernuus Salisb., which is listed by Mathews as a variety of N. triandrus.
  3. ^ N. lusitanicus and N. pallidulus originally considered subspecies or varieties of N. triandrus. However both Zonnefeld (2008), together with Dorda and Fernandez Casas (1989) and Perez-Barrales et al. (2006) find sufficient evidence to consider these to be separate species
  4. ^ N. assoanus Dufour ex Schult. & Schult.f. and N. gaditanus Boiss. & Reut. were previously included in Jonquilla but were moved to Juncifolii in 2008 when this was split off (Zonneveld 2008)
  5. ^ N. flavus is the accepted name according to The Plant List, but Zonneveld, who described the taxon, disputes this. (Akers 2011)
  6. ^ Moved from Apodanthi (Zonneveld 2008)
  7. ^ Fernandes considered this a subsection of Jonquilla
  8. ^ Although Aedo in the Flora Iberica considered these to all be Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. subsp. nevadensis (Pugsley) A. Fern., (Aedo 2014) Medrano et al. criticised this approach for ignoring phylogenetic evidence to the contrary, and their data support the differentiation into these three species. (Medrano 2014)
  9. ^ While the World Checklist considers this to be a synonym of N. longispathus, Zonneveld treated it as a separate species on the basis of DNA content
  10. ^ Moved from Pseudonarcissus (Zonneveld 2008)
  11. ^ The taxonomy and speciation of Section Pseudonarcissus, the largest section, has proved particularly problematic, even after splitting it into two. Zonneveld subdivided the section into two sections Pseudonarcissus (France, northern Spain and Portugal) and Nevadensis (southern Spain). Opinions as to the number of species varies considerably, from considering the section as a single variable species to a section with a very large number of species. Zonneveld accepted eight, with those taxa having similar amounts of DNA considered as either synonyms or subspecies. He accepted eight subspecies.(Zonneveld 2008) Mathew considered there to be two groups, which he labelled A (small flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter) and B (large flowers, 5–12 cm in diameter).(Hanks 2002, Mathew B. Classification of the genus Narcissus. pp. 30–52.)
  12. ^ Accepted as species by World Checklist, but see Zonnefeld

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus 1753.
  2. ^ Haworth 1831.
  3. ^ a b Blanchard 1990.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Zonneveld 2008.
  5. ^ a b Webb 1980.
  6. ^ a b Fernandes, A. (1968). "Keys to the identification of native and naturalized taxa of the genus Narcissus L." (vol. 33). Daffodil and Tulip Year Book. pp. 37–66. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
  7. ^ a b Mathew, B (2003-09-02). Classification of the genus Narcissus. pp. 30–52. ISBN 9780203219355. Retrieved 2 October 2014. In Hanks (2002)
  8. ^ Fernandes, A (1951). "Sur la phylogenie des especes du genre Narcissus L." Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana II. 25: 113–190. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  9. ^ Erhardt 1993.
  10. ^ "Narcissus". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
  11. ^ "Botanical Classification". Royal Horticultural Society. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Botanical names in the genus Narcissus". Royal Horticultural Society. October 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  13. ^ "Daffodil cultivar registration". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  14. ^ "Search The International Daffodil Register & Classified List". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  15. ^ "Narcissus", World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2014-09-10
  16. ^ Royal Horticultural Society System of Classification
  17. ^ Zonneveld, B. J. M. (24 September 2008). "The systematic value of nuclear DNA content for all species of Narcissus L. (Amaryllidaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 275 (1–2): 109–132. doi:10.1007/s00606-008-0015-1.
  18. ^ RHS Botanical Classification
  19. ^ * Fernández-Casas, Francisco Javier (2011). "Narcissorum Notulae, XXXI" (PDF). Fontqueria. 56 (26): 239–248. Retrieved 5 October 2014.

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