List of domino games
This is a partial list of games played with domino tiles or similar equipment. The most typical domino games are layout games, i.e. games in which the players add matching tiles from their hand to a layout in the middle of the table. These can be either blocking games, in which the object is to empty one's hand, or scoring games, in which the players can score during the game by creating certain configurations. Other games using domino sets are often adaptations of card games. On the other hand, there are also domino-like card games, e.g. Sevens and the once very popular card game Pope Joan.
- 1 Layout games
- 2 Other games using domino sets
- 3 References
The games of the Trains family, of which this is the most basic representative, are typically played with at least double-nine or double-twelve sets. The number of tiles that each player draws initially depends on the number of players and the size of the set. If one player does not have a double, the tiles are shuffled again.
In the first round each player plays a double to start a private line of play, known as a train. In subsequent rounds, players first add a tile to their own train or pass if they cannot do this. A player who did not pass can also add at most one tile each to each of the other players' trains.
A player who empties their hand wins the game and scores 120 points plus 5 points for each tile that remains in an opposing players' hands.
This minor variation of the standard Draw game is due to Thierry Denoual. It is played with a double-six domino set which is standard except that every tile is bent into a 120-degree curve, so that three tiles can be assembled into a circle. This allows either end of the line of play to be blocked or both ends to connect.
The Block game for two players is the simplest basic domino variant. It requires a double-six set, from which each player draws seven tiles; the remainder is not used. The first player places a tile on the table which starts the line of play. The players alternately extend it with one matching tile at one of its two ends. A player who cannot do this passes. The game ends when one player wins by playing their last tile, or when the game is blocked because neither player can play. The winner's score is the total remaining pip count of the loser's hand. The winner of a blocked game is the player who has a lower pip count, and the score of the game is the difference of the pip counts.
There are also variants for four players.
Chicken Foot is a modern game related to the Cyprus family.
Cyprus is a variant of Sebastopol, but played by 4–10 players with a double-nine set. It is best described as a variant of the Draw game. Most, in some variants all, tiles are drawn by the players. The layout starts with a double, and the next eight tiles played must be attached to it, so that the layout is a star with eight open ends. The game proceeds like the Draw game, except that a player who cannot play need not draw more than once.
The Draw game is the game most often referred to as just Dominoes. It can be regarded as a variant of the Block game. Initially each player draws seven tiles from a double-six set.The first player places a tile on the table which starts the line of play. The players alternately extend it with one matching tile at one of its two ends. The main difference to the Block game is that players who cannot play must draw tiles until they find one which can be played or the stock consists of exactly two tiles. The pip count of the remaining stock (at least two tiles) is added to the losing player's remaining pip count to form the score of the game.
Maltese cross is a variant of Sebastopol for 2–4 players. Like Sebastopol, it uses a double-six set. Each player draws 5 tiles (7 tiles in the case of two players). As in Cyprus, a player who cannot play must draw one tile and may play it if possible. Once the central spinner and the four adjacent tiles have been played, the next four tiles to be played must be doubles, which are turned crosswise to form the likeness of a Maltese cross, but do not act as spinners.
This member of the Trains family of games, similar to Basic Trains but with an additional Mexican Train, is played mainly in the United States. It is typically played by at least four players using at least a double-twelve set.
The game starts with a double in the middle of the table, acting as a spinner from which the players' "private trains" branch off. An additional "Mexican train", initially of length zero, also starts from the central spinner.
Unless the tile played is a double, only one tile can be played per turn. Tiles must normally be played to the player's own train or the Mexican train. A player who cannot play must draw a tile and play that; if the stock is empty or the tile drawn cannot be played, the player must pass and mark their own train as public, allowing other players to use it like their own train and the Mexican train. The train becomes private again as soon as the owner adds a tile to it.
Some variations of the game have special rules for the first round, and additional rules to ensure that doubles at the end of trains are "satisfied" as quickly as possible.
Mexican Train can be regarded as a synthesis of the Trains and Cyprus families of games, with the addition of the Mexican train.
Rivers, Roads & Rails
This transportation-themed variation of the Draw game uses 140 square tiles. A small number of tiles allow the line of play to branch. Due to 90-degree curves the line of play can also get blocked in one or more directions.
Sebastopol is best described as a four-player variant of the Block game. The game starts with a double in the middle, from which the line of play takes off in four directions. The next four tiles played must be attached to this central spinner.
This game, due to James F. and Edna Graham, is played with a standard double-nine set plus eleven additional tiles representing combinations of the standard values 0–9 with an additional "spinner" symbol and the double "spinner". A "spinner" matches any other value.
Each player draws 14 (two players) or 7 (three to eight players) tiles. Play starts with the double 9, or with the double "spinner" to replace it. The second and third tile played must match with a 9 or a "spinner". Whenever a double is played later in the game, it serves as a spinner in the ordinary sense, and the line of play cannot be continued elsewhere before there are tiles on all four sides of the double. A player who cannot play must draw a tile from the stock and may play it immediately if it matches. The second game starts with the double 8, the third game with a double 7, and so on down to the double 0.
This is a variant of the Draw game in which scoring happens mostly during the game. There are no spinners, so that the line of play does not branch. Players score 2 points by playing a tile that makes the same value appear at both ends of the line of play, and 3 points if moreover there is a double at one end. Another 2 are scored by the player who empties their hand and ends the game, or by the player who is determined (by variable and sometimes complicated rules) to be the winner of a blocked game.
A variant in which the line of play must start with a double, which acts as a spinner, is known as Double Bergen.
Muggins, also known as All Fives or Five Up, is a variant of the Draw game in which, in addition to the scoring at the end of the game, players can score in each move if the total pip count of the endpoints of the line of play is divisible by 5. In some variants of this game the first double, or all doubles, can be used as spinners, in which the line of play branches.
In the variant All Threes, players score if the total pipcount of the endpoints is divisible by 3, in Fives and Threes they score if it is divisible by 3 or 5.
Other games using domino sets
5s and 3s
A skillful version of dominoes played in pairs or fours used in competitions and in leagues. The aim is to be the first player to exactly reach a set number of points in a round often 61. Each player has a hand of dominoes and play proceeds as normal dominoes matching an open end. The total number of pips at the open ends (with doubles counting twice) are used to decide if a player scores points. One point is scored for each time this total is exactly divisible by either 5 or 3. So if the play started double 6 it would score 4 points as 12/ 3 is exactly 4. If the next player played a 6-3 then the maximum is scored for a single turn of 15 for 8 points (5 for the 3s and 3 for the 5s). if the next player were to play 6-1 the total would be 4 and they would score no points. 
42, also known as Texas 42, is a trick-taking game played with a standard set of double-six dominoes. The rules are similar to the card game of Spades. Originally invented in Texas, it is often referred to as the "national game of Texas".
This trick-taking game for two players is similar to Sechsundsechzig and Bezique. Each player draws 7 tiles from a double-six set. Then a tile is turned up from the stock, and the higher of its two values determines the trump suit. For this rule and in general, the value of a blank is considered to be 7, not 0.
The winner of a trick is determined as follows. 0–0 (the bingo) beats everything else, the double of trumps beats all other trumps, and trumps beat all non-trumps except 0–0. If both tiles are non-trumps one simply compares their total pip counts.
In the first phase of the game each trick is followed by both players drawing a tile from the stock. As soon as the stock is exhausted or one player "closes the game" by announcing that they will score at least 70 points, the players stop drawing. From this point on the second player in each trick is obliged to follow suit as follows: Whenever possible, a trump must be answered by a trump, and a non-trump by a tile that matches its higher end if possible, or otherwise its lower end.
Scoring in this game is relatively complicated.
This adaptation of the Concentration card game is generally played by two players. The tiles are placed face down on the table, shuffled and then arranged in a simple rectangular grid.
The goal is to collect the largest number of pairs of tiles. With double-six dominoes, pairs consist of any two tiles whose pips sum to 12. For example, the 3–5 and the 0–4 form a pair. In some variations, doubles can only form pairs with other doubles so that the 2–2, for example, can only be paired with the 4–4 but this presents a problem with the 3-3 being unpairable.
Players, in turn, try to collect pairs by turning over and exposing the faces of two tiles from the grid. If the four values of the two sum to 12, the player takes the two tiles, scores a point (in some rules a point for each tile taken), and plays again. If the tally is any other number, the bones are turned face down again and the player's turn is over.
The first player to accumulate 50 (or 100) points wins the series.
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This trick-taking game can be played by two or three players with a double-five set (obtained from a double-six set by removing the seven tiles showing a 6) or by four players with a full double-six set. After shuffling, each player draws 8 tiles (four-player variant: 6 tiles).
The first player can play any tile from their hand. Each of the other players adds another tile to the trick; if possible it must have one value in common with the lead tile. Among those tiles for which the higher value is the same as the higher value of the lead tile, the one with the highest pip count takes the trick. Each four in a trick scores one point for the player who takes it.
- Celko, Joe (9 September 2001). "Rules of Domino Games: Trains". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Hoyle, Edmond; Dawson, Lawrence Hawkins (1950), Hoyle's games modernized, Routledge & Kegan Paul. Republished 1994 by Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1-85326-316-8
- Celko, Joe (9 September 2001). "Rules of Domino Games: Cyprus". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Celko, Joe (9 September 2001). "Rules of Domino Games: Maltese Cross". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- McLeod, John (10 July 2012). "Rules of Domino Games: Mexican Train". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Celko, Joe; McLeod, John (19 November 2009). "Rules of Domino Games: Sebastopol". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Kelley, Jennifer A. (1999), Great Book of Domino Games, Sterling, ISBN 978-0806942599
- Celko, Joe; McLeod, John (28 January 2008). "Rules of Domino Games: Bergen". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Celko, Joe (9 September 2001). "Rules of Domino Games: Double Bergen". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- McLeod, John (5 July 2012). "Rules of Domino Games: Fives and Threes". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "5's and 3's Dominoes Tournament Rules". Mind Sports Organisation Worldwide Ltd. Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- Celko, Joe (9 September 2001). "Rules of Domino Games: Bingo". Pagat.com. Retrieved 26 September 2012.