List of instruments used in toxicology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Instruments used specially in Toxicology are as follows: [1][2][3][4]

Instrument list[edit]

Instrument Uses
Instruments used in Internal medicine to help treat and diagnose the toxin clinically
Syringe and needles aspiration and collection of blood for chemical analysis; administration of medicines
Catheter used to collect urine for chemical analysis
Enema set to passively evacuate the rectum of faeces; video link
Lumbar puncture needle used for puncturing into the spine (or cisterns or fontanelles of a new born) for cerebro-spinal fluid aspiration or for injection drugs, specially anesthetics in spinal blocks, epidurals, etc.
Ryle's tube or Nasogastric tube used for nasogastric suction of ingested toxins (or at times introduction of food or drugs). video link
Electrocardiography machine (ECG) to read and trace the electrical activity of the heart; most toxins have an effect on the heart video link
Blood gas analyzer used to analyze and quantify the amount of various toxic gases within blood like Carbon monoxide
Electroencephalography (EEG) to read and trace the electrical activity of the brain; video link
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) apparatus video link
Ophthalmoscope to note the intra-ocular signs or effects of toxins
Endoscope to look inside the oesophagus, stomach, upper intestines, bile duct, larynx, trachea, bronchi-through the mouth; anal canal, rectum, colon- through anus; used mainly in Surgery or by surgical consultants
Ultracentrifuge used to separate particles dispersed in a liquid according to their molecular mass and aid in recognition
Electrophoresis apparatus used to detect and classify serum proteins or proteins from any other source. Also used for DNA separation.
Chemical laboratory apparatus for Chemical tests
Chromatography: One of the basic modern "chemical examination" of body fluids and viscera;video links for details
Gas Chromatography or Gas Liquid Chromatography(GLC) -do-
Planar Chromatography -do-
Paper Chromatography -do-
Thin layer chromatography -do-
Affinity chromatography -do-
Ion exchange chromatography -do-
Size exclusion chromatography -do-
Countercurrent chromatography -do-
Countercurrent chromatography -do-
Setup for Radioimmunoassay (RIA) previously it was widely used to detect various things in bold fluids like proteins (natural, infective, those produced by the body in reaction to disease, cancer related), tumor markers, hormones, viruses (hepatitis, HIV, etc.), etc.
Setup for Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) presently it is widely used to detect various things in bold fluids like proteins (natural, infective, those produced by the body in reaction to disease, cancer related), tumor markers, hormones, viruses (hepatitis, HIV, etc.), etc. It has replaced RIA

References[edit]

  1. ^ Essentials of medical physiology by Dr. Arun Baran Singha Mahapatra, ISBN 81-86793-56-9
  2. ^ Practical Pathology by Dr. P. Chakraborty n Dr. G. Chakraborty, ISBN 81-7381-332-9
  3. ^ Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology ISBN 0-7216-0194-4
  4. ^ Essentials of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Dr. K. S. N. Reddy, 25th Ed., India