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a green slug
live Pontohedyle milaschewitchii
ot = oral tentacles,
ey = eyes,
dg = digestive gland.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia
clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Acochlidiacea
clade Microhedylacea
Family: Microhedylidae
Odhner, 1937
Microhedylidae s.s.:
  • 3 genera, 9 species

Microhedylidae s.l. (including Ganitidae):

  • 5 genera, 11 species

Microhedylidae are a taxonomic family of sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks within the clade Acochlidiacea.

2005 taxonomy[edit]

Microhedylidae has been listed as a synonym of Parhedylidae in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).[2] Ganitidae Rankin, 1979 has been listed as a sole family within Hedylopsoidea.[2] The type genus of Livorniellidae was Livorniella Rankin, 1979.[2]

2010 taxonomy[edit]

Sensu Schrödl & Neusser (2010)[1] is Microhedylidae within the clade Microhedylacea.[1] Parhedylidae is a synonym of Microhedylidae.[1] Microhedylidae s.l. may informally include Ganitidae, but inclusion of Ganitidae within Microhedylidae requires further research and higher statistical support.[1]


Genera within the Microhedylidae include:

Microhedyle Hertling, 1930

  • Ganitus Marcus, 1953 - with the only species Ganitus evelinae Marcus, 1953 - it belongs to Microhedylidae s.l. / Ganitidae[1]
  • Paraganitus Challis, 1968 - with the only species Paraganitus ellynnae Challis, 1968 - it belongs to Microhedylidae s.l. / Ganitidae[1]

Parhedyle Thiele, 1931

Pontohedyle Golikov & Starobogatov, 1972


A cladogram based on sequences of mitochondrial 28S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome-c oxidase I (COI) genes showing phylogenic relations within the family Microhedylidae:[5]


Microhedyle sp. from St. Vincent

Ganitus evelinae

Paraganitus ellynnae

Microhedyle glandulifera

Parhedyle tyrtowii

Parhedyle cryptophthalma



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Schrödl M. & Neusser T. P. (2010). "Towards a phylogeny and evolution of Acochlidia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 124-154. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00544.x.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Frýda, Jiri; Hausdorf, Bernard; Ponder, Winston; Valdés, Ángel & Warén, Anders (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  3. ^ Rankin J. J. (1979). "A freshwater shell-less mollusc from the Caribbean: structure, biotics, and contribution to a new understanding of the Acochlidioidea". Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Contributions 116: 123 pp.
  4. ^ Marine Species Identification Portal : Genus Microhedyle. accessed 3 December 2010.
  5. ^ Jörger K. M., Norenburg J. L., Wilson N. G. & Schrödl M. (2012). "Barcoding against a paradox? Combined molecular species delineations reveal multiple cryptic lineages in elusive meiofaunal sea slugs". BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 245. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-245.

External links[edit]