Local standard of rest

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In astronomy, the local standard of rest or LSR follows the mean motion of material in the Milky Way in the neighborhood of the Sun.[1] The path of this material is not precisely circular.[2] The Sun follows the solar circle (eccentricity e < 0.1 ) at a speed of about 255 km/s in a clockwise direction when viewed from the galactic north pole at a radius of ≈ 8.34 kpc[3] about the center of the galaxy near Sgr A*, and has only a slight motion, towards the solar apex, relative to the LSR.[4][5]

The LSR velocity is anywhere from 202–241 km/s.[6] In 2014, very-long-baseline interferometry observations of maser emission in high mass star forming regions placed tight constraints on combinations of kinematic parameters such as the circular orbit speed of the Sun (Θ0 + V = 255.2 ± 5.1 km/s).[3] There is significant correlation between the circular motion of the solar circle, the solar peculiar motion, and the predicted counterrotation of star-forming regions.[7] Additionally, local estimates of the velocity of the LSR based on stars in the vicinity of the Sun[8] may potentially yield different results than global estimates derived from motions relative to the Galactic center.[9]


  1. ^ Frank H Shu (1982). The Physical Universe. University Science Books. p. 261. ISBN 0-935702-05-9. 
  2. ^ James Binney; Michael Merrifield (1998). Galactic Astronomy. Princeton University Press. p. 536. ISBN 0-691-02565-7. 
  3. ^ a b Reid, M.; et al. (10 March 2014). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of High Mass Star Forming Regions: The Structure and Kinematics of the Milky Way". The Astrophysical Journal. 783 (2): 130 (14pp). Bibcode:2014ApJ...783..130R. arXiv:1401.5377Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/130. 
  4. ^ Mark Reid; et al. (2008). "Mapping the Milky Way and the Local Group". In F. Combes; Keiichi Wada. Mapping the Galaxy and Nearby Galaxies. Springer. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-387-72767-1. 
  5. ^ The Sun's peculiar motion relative to the LSR is 13.4 km/s. See, for example, Binney, J. & Merrifield, M. "§10.6". op. cit. ISBN 0-691-02565-7.  or E.E. Mamajek (2008). "On the distance to the Ophiuchus star-forming region". Astron. Nachr. AN 329: 12; §2.3. Bibcode:2008AN....329...10M. arXiv:0709.0505Freely accessible. doi:10.1002/asna.200710827. 
  6. ^ Steven R. Majewski1 (2008). "Precision Astrometry, Galactic Mergers, Halo Substructure and Local Dark Matter". Proceedings of IAU Symposium 248. 3. Bibcode:2008IAUS..248..450M. arXiv:0801.4927Freely accessible. doi:10.1017/S1743921308019790. 
  7. ^ Reid, M.; et al. (20 July 2009). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of High Mass Star Forming Regions. VI. Galactic Structure, Fundamental Parameters, and Noncircular Motions". The Astrophysical Journal. 700 (1): 137–148. Bibcode:2009ApJ...700..137R. arXiv:0902.3913Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/137. 
  8. ^ Dehnen, W.; Binney, J.J. (October 1998). "Local stellar kinematics from HIPPARCOS data". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 298 (2): 387–394. Bibcode:1998MNRAS.298..387D. arXiv:astro-ph/9710077Freely accessible. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.1998.01600.x. 
  9. ^ Bovy, J.; et al. (10 November 2012). "The Milky Way's Circular-velocity Curve between 4 and 14 kpc from APOGEE data". The Astrophysical Journal. 759 (2): 131 (20pp). Bibcode:2012ApJ...759..131B. arXiv:1209.0759Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/759/2/131. 

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