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Lou Andreas-Salomé in 1914
|Died||5 February 1937 (aged 75)|
Lou Andreas-Salomé (born either Louise von Salomé or Luíza Gustavovna Salomé or Lioulia von Salomé, Russian: Луиза Густавовна Саломе; 12 February 1861 – 5 February 1937) was a Russian-born psychoanalyst and a well-traveled author, narrator, and essayist from a Russian-German family. Her diverse intellectual interests led to friendships with a broad array of distinguished Western thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Paul Rée, and Rainer Maria Rilke.
Lou Salomé was born in St. Petersburg to Gustav Ludwig von Salomé (1807–1878), and Louise von Salomé (Wilm) (1823–1913). Lou was their only daughter; they had five sons. Although she would later be attacked by the Nazis as a "Finnish Jew", her parents were actually of French Huguenot and Northern German descent. The youngest of six children, her household was wealthy and well-cultured, with all children learning Russian, German, and French; Salomé was allowed to attend her brothers' classes.
Born into a strictly Protestant family, Salomé grew to resent the Reformed church and Hermann Dalton, the Orthodox Protestant pastor, causing her to refuse being confirmed, while also leading to her interest in philosophical, literary, and other religious topics.
Seeking an education when she was 17, Salomé persuaded the Dutch preacher Hendrik Gillot, 25 years her senior, to teach her theology, philosophy, world religions, and French and German literature. Gillot became so smitten with Salomé that he wanted to divorce his wife and marry her. Salomé refused, for she was not interested in marriage and sexual relations. Though disappointed and shocked by this development, she remained friends with Gillot.
Following her father's death in 1879, Salomé and her mother went to Zurich, so Salomé could acquire a university education as a "guest student". In her one year at the University of Zurich--one of the few schools that accepted female students--Salomé attended lectures in philosophy (logic, history of philosophy, ancient philosophy, and psychology) and theology (dogmatics). During this time, Salomé's physical health was failing due to a lung disease, causing her to cough up blood. Due to this, she was instructed to heal in warmer climates, so in February 1882, Salomé and her mother went to Rome.
Rée and Nietzsche, and later life
Salomé's mother took her to Rome when Salomé was 21. At a literary salon in the city, Salomé became acquainted with the author Paul Rée. Rée proposed to her, but she instead suggested that they live and study together as 'brother and sister', along with another man for company, and thereby establish an academic commune. Rée accepted the idea, and suggested that they be joined by his friend Friedrich Nietzsche. The two met Nietzsche in Rome in April 1882, and Nietzsche is believed to have instantly fallen in love with Salomé, as Rée had earlier done. Nietzsche asked Rée to propose marriage to Salomé on his behalf, which she rejected. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband. Nietzsche nonetheless was content to join Rée and Salomé touring through Switzerland and Italy together, planning their commune. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salomé, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, and she again rejected him. He was happy to continue with the plans for an academic commune. After discovering the situation, Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth became determined to get Nietzsche away from what she described as the "immoral woman". The three traveled with Salomé's mother through Italy and considered where they would set up their "Winterplan" commune. This commune was intended to be set up in an abandoned monastery, but as no suitable location was found, the plan was abandoned.
After arriving in Leipzig in October 1882, the three spent a number of weeks together. However, the following month Rée and Salomé parted company with Nietzsche, leaving for Stibbe without any plans to meet again. Nietzsche soon fell into a period of mental anguish, although he continued to write to Rée, asking her, "We shall see one another from time to time, won't we?" In later recriminations, Nietzsche would blame the failure in his attempts to woo Salomé both on Salomé, Rée, and on the intrigues of his sister (who had written letters to the families of Salomé and Rée to disrupt their plans for the commune). Nietzsche wrote of the affair in 1883 that he felt "genuine hatred for [his] sister".
Salomé would later (1894) write a study, Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken (Friedrich Nietzsche in his Works), of Nietzsche's personality and philosophy.
In 1884 Salomé became acquainted with Helene von Druskowitz, the second woman to receive a philosophy doctorate in Zurich. It was also rumored that Salomé later had a romantic relationship with Sigmund Freud.
Marriage and relationships
Salomé and Rée moved to Berlin and lived together until a few years before her celibate marriage to linguistics scholar Friedrich Carl Andreas. Despite her opposition to marriage and her open relationships with other men, Salomé and Andreas remained married from 1887 until his death in 1930.
Salomé's co-habitation with Andreas caused the despairing Rée to fade from Salomé's life despite her assurances. Throughout her married life, she engaged in affairs or/and correspondence with the German journalist and politician Georg Ledebour, the German poet Rainer Maria Rilke, about whom she wrote an analytical memoir, the psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud and Victor Tausk, among others. Accounts of many of these are given in her volume Lebensrückblick. Her relationship with Freud was still quite intellectual despite gossip about their romantic involvement. In one letter Freud commends Salomé's deep understanding of people so much that he believed she understood people better than they understood themselves. The two often exchanged letters.
In May 1897, in Munich, she met Rilke, who had been introduced to her by Jacob Wassermann. She was 37 while Rilke was only 21. She has already published with some success Im Kampf um Gott "where she exposed the problem of loss of faith (which had been her own for a long time)", several articles, and the study Jesus der Jude that Rilke had read.
As Philippe Jaccottet reports, Salomé wrote in Lebensrückblick: "I was your wife for years because you were the first reality, where man and body are indistinguishable from each other, an indisputable fact of life itself. I could have said literally what you told me when you confessed your love to me: Only you are real. That is how we became husband and wife even before we became friends, not by choice, but by this unfathomable marriage [...] We were brother and sister, but as in a distant past, before the marriage between brother and sister became sacrilegious".
In 1899 with her husband Friedrich-Carl, then again in 1900, Lou traveled to Russia, the second time with Rilke, whose first name she changed from René to Rainer. She taught him Russian, to read Tolstoy (whom he would later meet) and Pushkin. She introduced him to patrons and other people in the arts, remaining Rilke's advisor, confidante, and muse throughout his adult life. The romance between the poet and Lou lasted three years, then turned into a friendship, which would continue until Rilke's death, as evidenced by their correspondence. In 1937, Freud said of Salomé's relationship with Rilke: "she was both the muse and the attentive mother of the great poet".
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At the age of 74, Salomé ceased to work as a psychoanalyst. She had developed heart trouble, and in her weakened condition had to be treated many times in hospital. Her husband visited her daily; it was a difficult situation for the old man, who was himself quite ill. After a forty-year marriage marked by illness on both sides and long periods of non-communication, the two grew closer. Freud himself recognized this from afar, writing: "this only proves the permanence of the truth [of their relationship]". Friedrich Carl Andreas died of cancer in 1930, and Salomé herself underwent a difficult cancer operation in 1935.
On the evening of 5 February 1937, Salomé died in her sleep of uremia at Göttingen. Her urn was laid to rest in her husband's grave in the Friedhof an der Groner Landstraße (Cemetery on Groner Landstrasse) in Göttingen. A memorial plaque on the newly renovated ground floor of her house, a street named "Lou-Andreas-Salomé-Weg" (Lou-Andreas-Salomé-Way), and the name of the institute for psychoanalysis and psychotherapy ("Lou-Andreas-Salomé Institut") commemorate the contributions of this former resident of Göttingen. A few days before her death the Gestapo confiscated her library (according to other sources it was an SA group who destroyed the library shortly after her death). The pretense for this confiscation: she had been a colleague of Sigmund Freud's, had practiced "Jewish science", and owned many books by Jewish authors.
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Salomé was a prolific writer, and penned several little-known novels, plays, and essays. She authored a "Hymn to Life" that so deeply impressed Nietzsche that he was moved to set it to music. Salomé's literary and analytical studies became such a vogue in Göttingen, where she lived late in her life, that the Gestapo waited until shortly after her death to "clean" her library of works by Jews.
She was one of the first female psychoanalysts and one of the first women to write psychoanalytically on female sexuality, before Helene Deutsch, for instance in her essay on the anal-erotic (1916), an essay admired by Freud. However, she had written about the psychology of female sexuality before she ever met Freud, in her book Die Erotik (1911).
She wrote more than a dozen novels, including Im Kampf um Gott, Ruth, Rodinka, Ma, Fenitschka – eine Ausschweifung, as well as non-fiction studies such as Henrik Ibsens Frauengestalten (1892), a study of Ibsen's female characters, and a book on Nietzsche, Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werke (1894).
Salomé edited a memoir about Rilke after his death in 1926. Among her works is also her Lebensrückblick, which she wrote during her last years based on memories of her life as a free woman. In her memoirs, first published in their original German in 1951, she goes into depth about her faith and her relationships.
Whoever reaches into a rosebush may seize a handful of flowers; but no matter how many one holds, it's only a small portion of the whole. Nevertheless, a handful is enough to experience the nature of the flowers. Only if we refuse to reach into the bush, because we can't possibly seize all the flowers at once, or if we spread out our handful of roses as if it were the whole of the bush itself – only then does it bloom apart from us, unknown to us, and we are left alone.
Salomé is said to have remarked in her last days, "I have really done nothing but work all my life, work ... why?" And in her last hours, as if talking to herself, she is reported to have said, "If I let my thoughts roam I find no one. The best, after all, is death."
Lou Andreas-Salomé's published works as cited by An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers.:36–38
- Im Kampf um Gott, 1885.
- Henrik Ibsens Frau-Gestalten, 1892.
- Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werken, 1894.
- Ruth, 1895, 1897.
- Fenitshcka. Eine Ausschweifung, 1898,1983.
- Menschenkinder, 1899.
- Aus fremder Seele, 1901.
- Ma, 1901.
- Im Zwischenland, 1902.
- Die Erotik, 1910.
- Drei Briefe an einen Knaben, 1917.
- Das Haus, 1919,1927.
- Die Stunde ohne Gott und andere Kindergeschichten, 1921.
- Der Teufel und seine Grossmutter, 1922.
- Rodinka, 1923.
- Rainer Maria Rilke, 1928.
- Mein Dank an Freud: Offener Brief an Professor Freud zu seinem 75 Geburtstag, 1931.
- Lebensruckblick. Grundriss einiger Lebenserinnerungen, ed. E. Pfeiffer, 1951, 1968.
- Rainer Maria Rilke – Lou Andreas-Salomé. Briefwechsel, ed. E. Pfeiffer, 1952.
- In der Schule bei Freud, ed. E. Pfeiffer, 1958.
- Sigmund Freud – Lou Andreas-Salomé. Briefwechsel, ed. E. Pfeiffer, 1966.
- Friedrich Nietzsche, Paul Rée, Lou von Salomé: Die Dokumente ihrer Begegnung, ed. E. Pfeiffer, 1970.
- The Freud Journal of lou Andreas-Salomé, tr. Stanley Leavy, 1964.
- Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salomé, Letters, tr. byu W. and E. Robson Scott, 1972.
- Ibsen's Heroines, ed., tr., and introd. by Siegfried Mandel, 1985.
In fiction and film
A fictional account of Salomé's relationship with Nietzsche is described in Irvin Yalom's novel, When Nietzsche Wept, also in Lance Olsen's novel, Nietzsche's Kisses, and the novel by Mexican writer Beatriz Rivas, titled La hora sin diosas (The time without goddesses).
Salomé plays a major role in William Bayer's novel, The Luzern Photograph, in which two reenactments of the famous image of her with Nietzsche and Rée impact a murder in contemporary Oakland, California.
Salomé is also fictionalized in Angela von der Lippe's The Truth about Lou, in Brenda Webster's Vienna Triangle, in Clare Morgan's A Book for All and None, in Robert Langs' two-act play Freud's Bird of Prey, and in Araceli Bruch's five-act play Re-Call (written in Catalan).
In Liliana Cavani's movie Al di la' del bene e del male (Beyond Good and Evil) Salome is played by Dominique Sanda. In Pinchas Perry's film version of When Nietzsche Wept, Salome is played by Katheryn Winnick.
Lou Salome, an opera in two acts by Giuseppe Sinopoli with libretto from Karl Dietrich Gräwe, premiered 1981 at the Bavarian State Opera, with August Everding as General Director, staging by Götz Friedrich and set design by Andreas Reinhardt.
In Colombian author Santiago Gamboa's novel Night Prayers, the epigram quotes Andreas-Salome: "What remained in the end, however the world or life changed, was the immutable fact of a universe abandoned by God."
Lou Andreas-Salomé, a German-language movie directed by Cordula Kablitz-Post, released in German cinemas on 30 June 2016. Andreas-Salome is portrayed onscreen by Katharina Lorenz and as a young woman by Liv Lisa Fries.
The film was released in New York City and Los Angeles in April 2018, with wider release to follow.
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- Powell, Anthony (1994). Under Review: Further Writings on Writers, 1946–1990. University of Chicago Press. p. 440. ISBN 0-226-67712-5.
- Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy, by R.J. Hollingdale (Cambridge University Press 1999), page 149
- Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy, by R.J. Hollingdale (Cambridge University Press 1999), page 151
- Nietzsche: The Man and his Philosophy, by R.J. Hollingdale (Cambridge University Press 1999), page 152
- Salomé, 2001
- Borossa, Julia; Rooney, Caroline. "Suffering, Transience and Immortal Longings Salomé Between Neitzsche and Freud". The Gale Group. Sage Publications. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Mark M. Anderson, "The Poet and the Muse", The Nation, 3 July 2006, pp. 40–41.
- Andreas-Salomé, 2003
- Borossa, Julia; Rooney, Caroline. "Suffering, Transience and Immortal Longings Salome Between Nietzsche and Freud". The Gale Group. Sage Publications. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Philippe Jaccottet, Rilke par lui-même, 1970, p.29
- Philippe Jaccottet, Rilke par lui-même, 1970, p.29–30
- Gerald Stieg, 2007, p.979-980
- Roudinesco and Plon, 2011, p. 65
- Popova, Maria (12 February 2015). "Lou Andreas-Salomé, the First Woman Psychoanalyst, on Human Nature in Letters to Freud". Brain Pickings. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Books of The Times – Her Friends Included Nietzsche, Rilke and Freud". The New York Times. 10 May 1991.
- Peters, 'My Sister, My Spouse', p. 300
- Wilson, Katharina M. (1991). An Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc.
- "When Nietzsche Wept". Litmed.med.nyu.edu. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- "La hora sin diosas". Alfaguara.com. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Bayer, William, The Luzern Photograph; ISBN 978-0-7278-8546-3
- Bruno Bosteels (21 August 2012). Marx and Freud in Latin America: Politics, Psychoanalysis, and Religion in ... Books.google.com. p. 237. ISBN 9781844678471. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- The Truth about Lou; ISBN 1-58243-358-5
- Vienna Triangle; ISBN 978-0-916727-50-5
- A Book for All and None; ISBN 978-0-7538-2892-2
- Freud's Bird of Prey; ISBN 1-891944-03-7
- Re-Call; ISBN 1905512201
- "Lou Salome: Muse, Geliebte, Therapeutin". Musik in Dresden. 6 February 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- 1965–, Gamboa, Santiago (2016). Night prayers. Curtis, Howard, 1949–. New York, N.Y. ISBN 9781609453114. OCLC 910980482.
- "In Love with Lou". World Literature Today. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- Astor, Dorian: Lou Andreas-Salomé, Gallimard, folio biographies, 2008; ISBN 978-2-07-033918-1
- Binion, R., Frau Lou: Nietzsche's Wayward Disciple, foreword by Walter Kaufmann, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1968
- Freud, S. and Lou Andreas-Salome: Letters, New York: Norton, 1985
- Jaccottet, Philippe, Rilke par lui-même, Paris, Seuil, coll. " Ecrivains de toujours ", 1970, " Naissance de Rainer-Maria ", p. 29–37
- Livingstone, Angela: (1984). Lou Andreas Salomé: Her life and work. London: Gordon Fraser, 1984
- Michaud, Stéphane: Lou Andreas-Salomé. L'alliée de la vie. Seuil, Paris 2000; ISBN 2-02-023087-9
- Pechota Vuilleumier, Cornelia: 'O Vater, laß uns ziehn!' Literarische Vater-Töchter um 1900. Gabriele Reuter, Hedwig Dohm, Lou Andreas- Salomé. Olms, Hildesheim 2005; ISBN 3-487-12873-X
- Pechota Vuilleumier, Cornelia: Heim und Unheimlichkeit bei Rainer Maria Rilke und Lou Andreas-Salomé. Literarische Wechselwirkungen. Olms, Hildesheim 2010; ISBN 978-3-487-14252-4
- Peters, H. F., My Sister, My Spouse: A Biography of Lou Andreas-Salome, New York: Norton, 1962
- Roudinesco, Elisabeth et Michel Plon, Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse, Paris, Fayard, coll. " La Pochothèque ", 2011 (1re éd. 1997) (ISBN 978-2-253-08854-7), " Andreas-Salomé Lou, née Liola (Louise) von Salomé (1861–1937). Femme de lettres et psychanalyste allemande ", p. 63–68
- Salomé, Lou: The Freud Journal, Texas Bookman, 1996
- Salomé, Lou: Friedrich Nietzsche in seinen Werke, 1894; Eng., Nietzsche, tr. and ed. Siegfried Mandel, Champaign, Illinois: University of Illinois Press Univ. of Illinois Press, 2001
- Salomé, Lou: You Alone Are Real to Me: Remembering Rainer Maria Rilke, tr. Angela von der Lippe, Rochester: BOA Editions, 2003
- Stieg, Gerald: « Rilke (Rainer Maria) », in Dictionnaire du monde germanique , Dir: É. Décultot, M. Espagne et J. Le Rider, Paris, Bayard, 2007, p. 979–980 (ISBN 9782227476523)
- Vollmann, William T., Friedrich Nietzsche: The Constructive Nihilist, The New York Times, 14 August 2005.
- Vickers, Julia: Lou von Salome: A Biography of the Woman Who Inspired Freud, Nietzsche and Rilke McFarland 2008
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