Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau

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Countess Louise Juliana
Louise Juliana van oranje.jpg
Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau
Born(1576-03-31)31 March 1576
Delft
Died15 March 1644(1644-03-15) (aged 67)
Königsberg
Noble familyNassau
Spouse(s)Frederick IV, Elector Palatine
IssueLuise Juliane, Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken
Katharina Sofie
Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Elisabeth Charlotte, Electress of Brandenburg
Anna Eleonore
Louis William
Maurice Christian
Louis Philip, Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern
FatherWilliam the Silent
MotherCharlotte of Bourbon

Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau (31 March 1576 in Delft – 15 March 1644 in Königsberg) was a countess consort of the Palatinate by marriage to Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, and took part in the regency government of her son between 1610 and 1614.[1] She also acted as a mediator between the king of Sweden and the elector of Brandenburg in 1631.

Biography[edit]

Louise Juliana during her childhood.

Louise Juliana was the first Dutch born member of the House of Orange-Nassau. She was the eldest daughter of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange and his third spouse Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpensier. [2]

After her father was murdered in 1584, she and some of her five sisters were raised by their stepmother Louise de Coligny.

On 23 June 1593, Louise Juliana married Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine. The marriage was arranged as a Protestant alliance between one of the most powerful Protestant German rulers and a member of a powerful Dutch Protestant dynasty and she was granted a dowry from both the Dutch estates and king Henry IV of France.

The marriage was not happy. Fredrick IV was often drunk and unfaithful, so Louise Juliana arranged for her children to be raised by her sister Elisabeth in the principality of Sedan, where they could be shielded from their father and given a Calvinist upbringing.[3]

After the death of her husband in 1610, she took part in the regency government in the name of her son Frederick V, known as "the Winter King." While John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken was formally named regent, she took part in the government alongside him. [4] She was instrumental in arranging the marriage between her son and Elizabeth Stuart in 1613.[5] In 1614, her son was declared an adult and she retired to her dower estate in Kaiserslautern.

Louise Juliana tried to convince her son not to accept the Bohemian crown in 1618.[6] When he left for Bohemia with his spouse, Louise Juliana was left in charge of her grandchildren, Charles Louis and Elizabeth, and returned to Heidelberg to act as the adviser of her son's regent John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken.[7] In 1620, she was forced to flee the Palatinate, and escaped with her grandchildren to her daughter in Berlin (her grandchildren remained in her care until 1628).[8]

When Berlin was besieged by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1631, she was given power of attorney by her son-in-law the Elector of Brandenburg to negotiate, and managed to convince her son-in-law to give in to the Swedish king's demands, thereby saving Berlin from destruction.[9] She left with the Brandenburg court to Köningsberg in 1638.

Issue[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  2. ^ "Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland". 17 September 2019.
  3. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  4. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  5. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  6. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  7. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  8. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]
  9. ^ Matty Klatter, Louise Juliana prinses van Oranje, in: Digitaal Vrouwenlexicon van Nederland. URL: http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/vrouwenlexicon/lemmata/data/LouiseJuliana [13/01/2014]

Links[edit]

Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau
Born: 31 March 1576 Died: 15 March 1644
Preceded by Electress Palatine
1593–1610
Succeeded by