M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage
|M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage|
A historical photograph of the M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage
|Type||Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon|
|Place of origin||United States|
1945–1953 (USA)1951–1978 (Nederlands)
|Used by||United States|
|Wars||World War II, Korean War|
|Weight||38,499 lb (17,463 kg)|
|Length||17 ft 11 in (5.46 m)|
|Width||9 ft 4.0 in (2.845 m)|
|Height||9 ft 10.0 in (2.997 m)|
|Two Bofors 40 mm guns with 352 rounds|
|Engine||Twin Cadillac Model 42, V-8, gasoline
220 hp (160 kW)
|150 mi (241 km)|
|Speed||35.0 mph (56.3 km/h)|
The M19 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage (MGMC) was a World War II United States Army self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon on the M24 light tank chassis. It was equipped with two Bofors 40 mm (1.6 in) guns. It was produced by Cadillac near the end of 1944.
The M19 was developed from the T65 which was based on the M5 light tank chassis. The original design was improved upon and designated the T65E1. It was accepted into service in May 1944 as the M19 MGMC, equipping several U.S. Army anti-aircraft units during World War II. The M19A1 was an improved variant with an auxiliary engine and spare barrels for the 40 mm Bofors guns.
During World War II, the M19 and M19A1 saw action in the European Theater of Operations as an assault gun, since the Allies had air supremacy over the skies of Europe. The M19 and M19A1 were also used during the Korean War in the same role.
The M19 MGMC had similar specifications to the M24 Chaffee. It was 17.9 ft (5.46 m) long, 9.33 ft (2.845 m) wide, and 9.83 ft (2.997 m) high. It had a weight of 38,499 lb (17,463 kg), and was powered with a 220 hp (160 kW) Twin Cadillac Model 42, V-8 engine installation. It could achieve a speed of 35 mph (56.3 km/h), and had a range of 150 mi (241 km). The vehicle was operated with a crew of six.
The M19 evolved from the 40 mm Gun Motor Carriage T65 project, which was based on an Armored Force requirement for a light anti-aircraft vehicle based on the M5 light tank chassis. Although trials were successful and a production of 1,000 T65s had been requested, the project was stopped by the Ordnance Department since the M5A1 light tank chassis was being phased out of production.
Since the T65 project was fading away, the Armored Force still needed a light anti-aircraft vehicle, so they made a new project (called T65E1) based on the new T24 chassis (a prototype of the M24 Chaffee). The T65E1 had the same overall layout as the T65 GMC – gun turret at rear with the engines in the middle of the chassis – with a few minor tweaks (including an angular gun shield instead of a straight one).
M19 and M19A1
The T65E1 was accepted into service as the M19 Gun Motor Carriage in May 1944 with an order for 904 production models, which was sent to Cadillac. Production did not start until August of that year, and only 285 were produced by the end of the war. The M19A1 had an auxiliary engine and generator to operate the 40 mm guns when the main engine was shut down, and fixtures for carrying two spare gun barrels.
The full order was not completed as the requirements for anti-aircraft weapons had changed and chassis were diverted to produce more of the Chaffee light tank.
The M19 MGMC served in Europe in World War II with the U.S. Army. By the time the M19 arrived, the Luftwaffe had been driven from the skies by Allied air power, so the M19 found use as an assault gun, which was a role it performed very well. It was never delivered to other countries for Lend-Lease or the Military Aid Program (though a few examples were transferred to the newly established JGSDF in 1954). It also served in the Korean War, for the same purpose as it was used in World War II. It was used in the defense against the North Korean forces in the Pusan Perimeter fighting and later fighting in Korea. The 40 mm guns were especially effective against Chinese mass infantry charges in North Korea.
- List of U.S. military vehicles by model number
- List of U.S. military vehicles by supply catalog designation
- Gander (2013), pp. 229–230.
- Chamberlain & Ellis (1969), p. 104.
- Green (2014), p. 157.
- Chamberlain & Ellis (1969), p. 101.
- Zaloga (2003), p. 41.
- Green (2014), p. 171.
- Kinard (2007), p. 298.
- Hunnicutt (1992), p. 353.
- Chamberlain, Peter; Ellis, Chris (1969). British and American Tanks of World War II. New York, NY: Arco. ISBN 0-668-01867-4.
- Gander, Terry (2013). The Bofors Gun. Barnsley, UK: Pen and Sword. ISBN 1-78346-202-7.
- Green, Mike (2014). American Tanks & AFVs of World War II. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 1-78200-931-0.
- Hunnicutt, R. P. (1992). A History of the American Light Tank: Stuart. Navato, CA: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2.
- Kinard, Jeff (2007). Artillery: An Illustrated History of Its Impact. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-556-X.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2003). M24 Chaffee Light Tank 1943–1985. New Vanguard. Oxford, UK: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-540-6.
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