M3 Scout Car
|M3A1 Scout Car|
M3 Scout Car
|Place of origin||United States|
|Wars||World War II, Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Civil War, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1958 Lebanon crisis, First Indochina War, Algerian War, Laotian Civil War, Cambodian Civil War|
|Designer||White Motor Company|
|Manufacturer||White Motor Company|
|Mass||8,900 lb (4.0 t)|
|Length||222 in (5.6 m)|
|Width||80 in (2.0 m)|
|Height||79 in (2.0 m)|
|Crew||driver + 7|
|Armor||6–13 mm (0.25 inch sides, 0.5 inch windshield)|
|.50 cal (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine gun|
|.30 cal (7.62 mm) Browning M1919A4 machine gun|
|Engine||Hercules JXD, 320 in3 (5,200 cc), L-head inline 6-cylinder, gasoline|
110 hp (82 kW), compression ratio 6.5:1, Zenith Model 29 carburetor
|Suspension||4 x 4 wheel, leaf spring|
|Speed||55 mph (89 km/h)|
The M3 Scout Car is an armored car in U.S. service during World War II. It was also known as the White Scout Car, after its manufacturer, the White Motor Company. It was used in various roles, including patrol, scouting, command vehicle, ambulance and gun tractor.
Design of the vehicle began at the White Motor Company, based in Cleveland, in 1937. It had .25 in (6.4 mm) face-hardened armor, full-time four-wheel drive (with no way to disengage it), four-speed manual constant-mesh (non-synchromesh) transmission (with one reverse gear) and two-speed transfer case, leaf spring suspension, manual steering, and (unusual for the period) vacuum-assisted (power) brakes. The wheelbase was 131 in (3.3 m), tread 65.25 in (1.657 m). The wheels were 8.5 in (220 mm) wide, 20 in (510 mm) diameter, and used standard 12-ply military non-directional tires. Fuel capacity was 30 US gal (110 l).
The original order was for 64 units, all of which were given to the 7th Cavalry Brigade. Eventually, the Army decided to adopt an improved version, designated M3A1. The new version had a longer and wider hull. In front of the bumper, an unditching roller was mounted. The M3A1 could carry up to seven infantry and provide fire support with three machine guns - one .50 caliber (12.7 mm) and two .30 caliber (7.62 mm) - mounted on a skate rail around the hull.
The early M2 halftrack copied the armor layout as well as the skate rail machine gun mounts. The design also influenced the later U.S. halftrack designs, such as the M3, and the post-World War II Soviet BTR-40.
The M3 and M3A1 first saw combat with the Philippine Army and Philippine Constabulary in the Philippines in 1941 to 1960s, and was also used by the cavalry units of the US Army in the North African Campaign and the invasion of Sicily. It was used in traditional cavalry roles, such as scouting and screening; also as an armored command vehicle. By mid-1943, the drawbacks of the design - its open top, poor off-road mobility, and poor armament - were evident. During 1943, most US Army units replaced the M3A1 with the M8 armored car and similar M20 Utility Car. A small number of M3A1s were retained and employed in Normandy. A few M3A1s were used by the US Marine Corps in the Pacific theater, but none saw combat.
The M3A1 was also supplied via lend-lease channels to the Soviet Union (3,034; these vehicles remained in service until at least 1947) and Britain. They were also used to equip Free French Forces, as well as Belgian, Czechoslovak and Polish units. After the war, many vehicles were sold, mostly to Asian and Latin American countries. In Red Army service, the car was used primarily as a reconnaissance vehicle, but also as a gun tractor for the ZIS-3 76-mm field gun. It remained in wide service throughout the war. In British and French service, M3A1s were used as observation vehicles for field artillery observers, as ambulances and as scout vehicles.
A few vehicles were used by Israel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. At least one Israeli M3A1 was modified with top armor and a revolving turret. France employed its M3A1s in the First Indochina War and the Algerian War.
By late 1990, the only country to keep the M3A1 in service was the Dominican Republic.
- Brazil - 100 M3A1
- Cambodia - 15 M3A1s used by the Cambodian Army in 1954-1975.
- Republic of China
- People's Republic of China - Used captured vehicles from the Chinese Nationalist Army during the Chinese Civil War.
- Dominican Republic
- El Salvador
- Nazi Germany - Used captured vehicles in the western front during World War II.
- Lebanon - M3A1s used by the Regional Gendarmerie and the Lebanese Air Force in 1949-1959.
- Kingdom of Laos - 15 M3A1s used by the Royal Lao Army during the Laotian Civil War.
- New Zealand - M3A1s used by 2nd NZ Division engineering units.
- Dutch East Indies
- South Vietnam
- United Kingdom
- United Nations - Captured Katangese vehicles used by ONUC forces.
- Soviet Union
- Yugoslavia - 300 received during the Informbiro period.
- M3 (1938) - original variant. 64 units built.
- M3A1 (1941) - bigger hull.
- M3A1E1 - had Buda diesel engine. 100 units built.
- M3A1E2 - had armored roof.
- M3A1E3 - was fitted with 37 mm Gun M3 on mount T6 / M25. Never reached serial production.
- M3A1 Command Car (1943) - thicker armor, armed with .50 cal MG.
- Berndt, p.162.
- Berndt, Thomas. Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles (Krause Publications, 1993), p.164.
- Berndt, p.164.
- Plowman, Jeffery. Armor Camouflage & Markings of the 2nd New Zealand Division, Part 2: Italy (Model Centrum Progres, 2007), p.48.
- "Legendarios". FAV-Club. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
- Kočevar, Iztok (August 2014). "Micmac à tire-larigot chez Tito: L'arme blindée yougoslave durant la Guerre froide" [The Yugoslav armored arm during the Cold War]. Batailles et Blindés (in French). No. 62. Caraktère. pp. 66–79. ISSN 1765-0828.
- Thomas Berndt (March 1993). Standard catalog of U.S. military vehicles, 1940-1965. Motorbooks Intl. ISBN 978-0-87341-223-0..
- TM 9-705
- TM 9-1705
- TM 9-1706
- TM 9-1709
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to M3 Scout Car.|
- The Encyclopedia of Tanks and Armored Fighting Vehicles, Amber Books, 2002
- M. Baryatinskiy - US APCs of World War II, Modelist-Konstruktor, Bronekollektsiya 05-2004 (М.Барятинский - Американские бронетранспортеры Второй мировой войны, Mоделист-Конструктор, Бронеколлекция 05-2004).
- WWII vehicles
- Photo gallery at OldCMP
- M3A1 Scout Car Photos at Prime Portal