||This article needs attention from an expert in Computing or Electronic music. (February 2009)|
The MIDIbox project is an open source modular DIY framework (hardware and software) MIDI platform built around the PIC family of microcontrollers (specifically the PIC18F452, PIC16F88, PIC18F4620 and PIC18F4685) and recently with STM32Fxx and LPC1769 32-bit too. It can be used to build hardware MIDI control units for various synthesizers, multi-track recording software, and other MIDI devices; as well as stand-alone synthesizers, sequencers and other projects.
- 1 History
- 2 The MIDIbox Hardware Platform (MBHP)
- 3 The modules
- 4 The MIDIbox Operating System (MIOS)
- 5 MIOS hardware
- 6 Complete solutions
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The MIDIbox Hardware Platform is the continuation of Thorsten Klose's earlier work on MIDI controllers. Designs are based around a standardized environment of reusable and exchangeable modules. Soon after the release of the first modules, a small group of enthusiasts formed and grew into a thriving open source development community.
The MIDIbox Hardware Platform (MBHP)
The platform focuses on well defined and documented modules based on small, uncomplicated circuits to allow for amateur assembly. These modules are then assembled into a complete project. All boards can be made as single-layer PCBs, and prototype boards designed with a freeware CAD program. Almost all components are through-hole for easier assembly.
The first MIDIbox hardware platform (MBHP) was based its own open-source operating system—MIOS (MIDIbox Operating System)—written in PIC assembly language for speed and accuracy. A C wrapper layer provides simplified coding. MIOS is designed and documented to allow simple reconfiguration, adaptation, and extension by hobbyists and enthusiasts.
The new MIDIBox Hardware Platform called MIOS32 runs on ARM-based processors LPC1769 from NXP and STM32F407 from ST Microelectronics. It is based on a Real Time Operating System (RTOS) derived from FreeRTOS. The toolchain for MIOS32 is based on GCC and uses only C language.
Currently, about 15 separate modules are available:
- Core Module
- PIC Programmer Modules like an actual PIC-Burner or the JDM Module
- AIN Module Analog Input (0-5V)
- DIN Module Digital Input (ON/OFF)
- DOUT Module Digital Output (e.g. LED ON/OFF)
- LCD Module Liquid Crystal Display
- AOUT Module Analog Out to output Voltages (for Controls)
- SEQV4 Sequencer V4
- SEQV4L Sequencer V4 Lite
- SEQV3 Sequencer V3
- SID Module for the MOS Technology SID (as found in the Commodore 64)
- OPL3 Module for the FM-Chips YMF262 and YAC512
- IIC SpeakJet Module for the SpeakJet SoundChip
Memory expansion modules
- BankStick 32k / 64k Memory module
MIDI I/O modules
- LTC Module MIDI LED Indicators + 1 MIDI-Out + 1 Thru (+ 1 optional to-COM-Port)
- USB Modules PC/USB Interface
- MF Module to control Motorfaders
- IIC Modules to communicate to other (Microcontroller-)Devices via I2C
The MIDIbox Operating System (MIOS)
The MIDIbox Operating System (MIOS) facilitates design of flexible MIDI controller applications. MIOS adheres to a non-commercial, open platform as fundamental to the exchange of ideas and personal adaptations not possible with commercial controllers.
Most controllers built by the community are based on existing documented designs, and begin life with the feature set provided by the existing firmware. End users can enhance their devices with exchangeable program code, and customize them to suit their host application, synthesizer or other MIDI device. Users can also customize to suit their own preferred workflow, or design a new project from scratch.
Application source code, module schematics and PCB layouts are available free for non-commercial use as templates for modifications and improvements. Thus MIOS and the Hardware Platform allow an easy entry to hobbyist microcontroller development, while making possible applications outside the realms of the commercial, mainstream MIDI market.
The operating system consist of a kernel that provides user hooks to hardware and software events, and functions for interaction with Hardware Platform modules.
One core module with a PIC18F452 microcontroller can handle
- up to 128 digital inputs
- up to 128 digital outputs
- up to 64 analog inputs
- character and graphical LCDs
- up to 8 BankSticks (I2C EEPROMs)
- one MIDI In and one MIDI Out, or an RS232 serial COM port
Background drivers are available for the following control tasks:
- MIDI I/O processing
- Bootstrap loader
- Analog conversion of up to 64 pots, faders or other analog sources with a 10-bit resolution
- Motor handling for up to 8 motorized moving faders with a 10-bit resolution
- Handling of up to 64 rotary encoders
- Handling of up to 128 buttons, touch sensors or similar digital input devices
- Handling of up to 128 LEDs, relays, Digital-Analog-Converters or similar output devices. In multiplex mode a nearly unlimited number of LEDs, LED rings and LED digits can be driven
- Read/Write from/to EEPROM, Flash, and BankStick
- Linking PIC18F Core modules via MIDIbox Link
The whole operating system has been written in assembly language and has been optimized for speed. MIOS currently uses 8k of program memory and 640 bytes of RAM.
Only 75 µs is required to read 128 digital input pins and to write to 128 output pins. 16 rotary encoders are handled within 100 µs. Analog inputs are scanned in the background every 200 µs; changes larger than a definable minimum range trigger a user hook.
Up to 256 MIDI events can trigger dedicated functions; processing of the event list requires about 300 µS. MIDI events can also be processed by a user routine for sysex parsing or similar jobs. A user timer is available for time triggered code.
Support for other high-level languages apart from C is possible.
The MIOS hardware is organized around the concept of MIDIBox Hardware Platform (MBHP). The MBHP are highly versatile motherboards, offering the highest possible number of connections for a given processor. Four versions of MBHP are currently available:
- MBHP for PIC16F877 and PIC18F452 (8 bits processors). The two chips are pin compatible, but the PCB needs a simple change between the two chips
- MBHP for LPC1769 (32 bits ARM7 processor)
- MBHP for STM32F407 (32 bits Cortex M4 processor)
When a project needs less I/O than the ones available on a given MBHP, the MIDIBox concept allows to create a simplified PCB dedicated to this project. This is the approach used on Sammich MIDIBox SID  and Sammich MIDIBox FM. These two kits contain the original MBHP design, but with a simplified PCB, dedicated to the connection with a SID chip or a YMF262 chip.
In the case of the STM32F407 MBHP, the CPU is mounted on a module used as a daughterboard, made by ST and sold as a development board (called STM32F4 Discovery by ST). The final user does not have to deal with SMD components, the daughterboard being mounted on standard 0.1" connectors
At this point there are 11 fully documented projects available, as well as a large number of user projects generated by the community. The official projects are as follows:
- MIDIbox SEQ V3:
16 Track Live Step and Morph Sequencer + advanced Arpeggiator
- MIDIbox SID V1:
Hardware MIDI-controllable Synthesizer based on the MOS Technology SID (MOS6581) sound chip as shipped with the Commodore 64/128
- MIDIbox FM V1:
Hardware synthesizer based on the Yamaha YMF262 sound chip (also known as OPL3) for generating the famous FM sounds known from Soundblaster (compatible) soundcards of the early 90s
- MIDI Merger V1:
Merges two separate MIDI inputs to a single output
- MIDI Router V1:
Routes various MIDIboxes to a single MIDI port
- MIDI Processor:
Provides basic functionality to receive and transmit MIDI events
- MIDIbox CV
Provides CV and gate outputs to drive voltage controlled devices such as analog modular synthesizers
- MIDIbox 64:
Full-fledged 64 channel MIDI controller
- MIDIbox 64E V2:
Extended version of the MIDIbox 64
- MIDIO128 V2:
The MIDIO128 interface is used to drive up to 128 digital output pins and to react on up to 128 digital input pins via MIDI
- MIDIbox LC V1:
Alternative to the MIDIbox 64/64E
- MIDImon V2:
Reports events, which are transmitted over the MIDI cable, in a readable form
- http://www.freertos.org Main website for FreeRTOS
- http://midibox.org/forums/topic/18526-midibox-goes-rtp-midi Presentation of RTP-MIDI design concept for MIDIbox
- http://kissbox.nl/products_oem.html Webpage of RTP-MIDI OEM module used on MIOS32
- "MIOS Change Log". Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- http://www.vintagesynth.com/misc/sammichsid.php MIDIBox SID by Sammich
- http://www.st.com/web/catalog/tools/FM116/SC959/SS1532/PF252419 Reference page for STM32F4 Discovery board
- http://beb.digitalaudio.free.fr/RTP-MIDI.html Kit for MBHP based on STM32F4 Discovery