Machine Gun Corps
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|Machine Gun Corps|
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The Machine Gun Corps (MGC) was a corps of the British Army, formed in October 1915 in response to the need for more effective use of machine guns on the Western Front in World War I. The Heavy Branch of the MGC was the first to use tanks in combat, and the branch was subsequently turned into the Tank Corps, later called the Royal Tank Regiment. The MGC was disbanded after the war in 1922.
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the tactical potential of machine guns was not appreciated by the British Military. The Army therefore went to war with each infantry battalion and cavalry regiment containing a machine gun section of just two guns each. This was supplemented in November 1914 by the formation of the Motor Machine Gun Service (MMGS), administered by the Royal Artillery, consisting of motor-cycle mounted machine gun batteries. A machine gun school was also opened in France.
A year of warfare on the Western Front proved that, to be fully effective, machine guns must be used in larger units and crewed by specially trained men. To achieve this, the Machine Gun Corps was formed in October 1915 with Infantry, Cavalry and Motor branches, followed in 1916 by the Heavy Branch. A depot and training centre was established at Belton Park in Grantham, Lincolnshire, and a base depôt at Camiers in France.
The Infantry Branch was by far the largest and was formed by the transfer of battalion machine gun sections to the MGC. These sections were grouped into Brigade Machine Gun Companies, three per division. New companies were raised at Grantham. In 1917, a fourth company was added to each division. In February and March 1918, the four companies in each division were formed into a Machine Gun Battalion.
The Cavalry Branch consisted of Machine Gun Squadrons, one per cavalry brigade.
The Motor Branch was formed by absorbing the MMGS and the armoured car squadrons of the recently disbanded Royal Naval Armoured Car Service. It formed several types of units: motor cycle batteries, light armoured motor batteries (LAMB) and light car patrols. As well as motor cycles, other vehicles used included Rolls-Royce and Ford Model T cars.
The Heavy Section was formed in March 1916, becoming the Heavy Branch in November of that year. Men of this branch crewed the first tanks in action at Flers, during the Battle of the Somme in September 1916. In July 1917, the Heavy Branch separated from the MGC to become the Tank Corps, later called the Royal Tank Regiment.
The MGC saw action in all the main theatres of war, including France, Belgium, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Salonika, East Africa and Italy. In its short history, the MGC gained an enviable record for heroism as a front line fighting force. Indeed, in the latter part of the war, as tactics changed to defence in depth, it commonly served well in advance of the front line. It had a less enviable record for its casualty rate. Some 170,500 officers and men served in the MGC, with 62,049 becoming casualties, including 12,498 killed, earning it the nickname 'the Suicide Club'.
At the end of hostilities, the MGC was again re-organised in a smaller form as many of its soldiers returned to civilian life. However, the Corps continued to see active service in subsequent wars: the Russian Civil War, the Third Anglo-Afghan War, and in the Northwest Frontier of India. It also served prominently in the British force that occupied parts of Germany in the period between the 1918 Armistice and the Versailles Peace Treaty. Its equipment and training made it possible for a relatively small garrison to control a large population.
The following members of the Machine Gun Corps have been awarded the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
- Herbert George Columbine, 1918, Hervilly Wood, France
- Arthur Henry Cross, 1918, Ervillers, France
- John Reginald Noble Graham, 1917, Istabulat, Mesopotamia
- Allan Ebenezer Ker, 1918, near St. Quentin, France
- David Stuart McGregor, 1918, near Hoogemolen, Belgium
- Harold Sandford Mugford, 1917, Monchy-le-Preux, France
- William Allison White, 1918, Gouzeaucourt, France
Machine Gun Corps Memorial, London
- MGC Old Comrades Association
- Hutchison, G.S., Machine guns : their history and tactical employment (being also a history of the Machine Gun Corps, 1916–1922). London : Macmillan, 1938.
- Russell, Arthur, With the Machine Gun Corps from Grantham to Cologne. London : Dranes, 1923.
- Crutchley, C.E., Machine Gunner: 1914–1918. Purnell Book Services Ltd., 1975.
- Stevens, F.A., The Machine Gun Corps : a short history. Tonbridge : F.A. Stevens, 1981.
- Coppard, George, With a Machine Gun to Cambrai. Cassell Military Paperbacks, 1999.
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