Maxim Berezovski

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Maxim Berezovski
Berezovsky, Maksim Sozontovich.jpg
Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky
Born27 October (O.S. 16 October) 1745
Died24 March 1777 (N.S. 2 April) (aged 31)
Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire
EraClassical

Maxim Sozontovich Berezovsky (alternative transcriptions of names are Maxim Berezovski, Maksim Berezovsky or Maksym Berezovsky, Russian: Максим Созонтович Березовский) (ca. 1745 — 2 April 1777) was a Russian[1][2][3][4] Imperial composer, opera singer, bassist and violinist, who studied in Italy and worked in the Saint Petersburg Court Chapel.

Berezovsky was one of the first Russian composers in the 18th century to be recognized throughout Europe and the first to compose an opera, symphony, and violin sonata. His most popular works are his sacred choral pieces written for the Orthodox Church. Much of his work has been lost; only three of the 18 known choral concertos have been found. Dmitry Bortniansky was thought to be the first Russian symphonic composer until the discovery in 2002 of Berezovsky's Symphony in C by Steven Fox in the Vatican archives, composed around 1770 to 1772.

Early life[edit]

Not much is known about Berezovsky's biography. His life story was reconstructed in a short novel written in 1840 by Nestor Kukolnik and a play by Peter Smirnov staged at the Alexandrine Theatre in Saint Petersburg. Many particulars from these works of fiction had been accepted as fact, but have since been proven inaccurate.

Some accounts speculate that Berezovsky was born on 27 October 1745 in Glukhov, and studied at the Kiev Mohyla Academy. However, no hard evidence exists for this information, and his name is missing from the annals of the Academy. Since Glukhov was the only other music school training singers for the Imperial Court Choir, it is likely that he did spend at least some of his childhood there. Today there is a monument to Maxim Berezovsky in Glukhov, which is believed to be his birthplace.[5]

Education[edit]

On 29 June 1758 he was accepted as a singer into the Prince Peter Fedorovych capella in Oranienbaum (now known as Lomonosov), near Saint Petersburg. Berezovsky participated in Italian operas and his name appears in printed librettos of the operas Alessandro nell'Indie by Francesco Araja and La Semiramide riconosciuta by Vincenzo Manfredini given in Oranienbaum in 1759 and 1760.

In 1762, he became a singer of the Italian Capella of the Saint Petersburg Imperial palace, which was the palace chapel choir. Here he studied under singer N. Garani and Capella director F. Zoppis and likely under composers Vincenzo Manfredini and Baldassare Galuppi. He continued as court musician and composer for the majority of the 1760s.

In 1763, Berezovsky wed Franzina Uberscher (also translated as Francisca Iberchere), a graduate of the Oranienbaum theatrical school. Not much is known about their life together. When he died in 1777, the composer's government funeral allowance was given to court singer J. Timchenko. This implies that Berezovsky was either separated or widowed from his wife during his final days, since this allowance would normally be given to the wife of the deceased.

Berezovsky was sent to Italy in the spring of 1769 to train with renowned teacher padre Giovanni Battista Martini at the Bologna Philharmonic Academy, where he graduated with distinction. Along with fellow graduate Josef Mysliveček, Berezowsky's exam task was to compose a polyphonic work on a given theme. This was a similar exam to the one given to his fellow alumnus Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart several months earlier, after which both graduated with distinction.[6] Berezovsky's piece for four voices is still kept in the Academy's archives. On 15 May 1771 he became a member of the Accademia Filarmonica.

Later years[edit]

His opera Demofonte to the Italian libretto by Pietro Metastasio was staged in Livorno, Italy, and premiered in February 1773.

Berezovsky returned to Saint Petersburg in October 1773 (early biographies indicate that he returned in 1775). According to archival discoveries in the late 20th century, Berezovsky was appointed a staff member of the imperial theater and capellmeister of the Royal court capella eight months later. This was a high ranking position for a musician and contradicts the notion that Berezovsky's talent was not appreciated upon his return to Saint Petersburg. Some sources state that he committed suicide as a result of depression for not being accepted upon his return to Saint Petersburg. His first biographer, Eugene Bolkhovitinov, made this assertion in 1804 based on testimonials of those who knew Berezovsky. Marina Ritzarev, a contemporary scholar, asserts that he did not commit suicide but rather likely caught a sudden fever resulting in his death after developing some psychic disease. He died in Saint Petersburg on 24 March (2 April N.S.) 1777.

Cultural influence[edit]

Andrei Tarkovsky's 1983 film Nostalghia is "a commentary on exile as told through Berezovsky's life".[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eighteenth-Century Russian Music
  2. ^ The Concise Encyclopedia of Music and Musicians
  3. ^ Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers
  4. ^ Maksim Berezovsky (1745-1777)
  5. ^ "Maksym Berezovsky: Tragedy of the Ukrainian Mozart", Kateryna Zorkina, The Day Newspaper (Kiev), 16 April 2002.
  6. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0100jkn
  7. ^ Orlando Figes, Natasha's Dance (Picador, 2002), p. 41.

Sources[edit]

  • Pryashnikova, Margarita (2003). "Maxim Berezovsky and His Secular Works". Text of the booklet to the CD Maxim Berezovsky (early 1740s – 1777) Pratum Integrum Orchestra
  • Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Article on Maksym Berezovsky
  • Ritzarev, Marina (2006), Eighteenth-Century Russian Music (Ashgate) ISBN 978-0-7546-3466-9
  • Yurchenko, Mstyslav (2000). Text of booklet to the CD Ukrainian Sacred Music Vol. 1: Maksym Berezovsky
  • Yurchenko, Mstyslav (2001). Text of booklet to the CD Sacred Music by Maksym Berezovsky

External links[edit]