Margaret Pearse

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Margaret Pearse
Margaret Pearse in later life.jpg
Born Margaret Brady
(1857-02-12)February 12, 1857
Dublin
Died April 22, 1932(1932-04-22) (aged 75)
Dublin
Nationality Irish
Occupation
  • Shop Assistant
  • Housekeeper
  • School Matron
  • TD
Known for Mother of Patrick Pearse
Spouse(s) James Pearse
Children
Parent(s)
  • Patrick Brady
  • Brigid Brady (née Savage)

Margaret Pearse (née Brady; 12 February 1857 – 22 April 1932) was an Irish politician. She was born in Dublin, while her father's family were from County Meath. In 1877 she married James Pearse who was born in Bloomsbury, Middlesex on the 8th of December 1839. Margaret was the mother of Patrick Pearse, one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916, who was executed soon after the rising. Another son Willie Pearse was also executed after the 1916 Easter Rising.

Early life[edit]

Margaret Pearse (née Brady) was born on 12 February 1857 in Dublin[1] and was baptised in St. Lawrence O'Toole's parish.[2] At that time, her parents were living at 1, Clarence Street.[2] Her father was Patrick Brady, a coal merchant,[3][4] whose family were from County Meath and her mother was Brigid Brady (née Savage) of Oldtown, Co. Dublin.[3][5] Margaret’s great grandfather Walter Brady was from Nobber in Meath but was originally a Cavan man by birth.[5] His son Walter, Margaret’s grandfather, married Margaret O’Connor and had eight children – Catherine, Phil, Anne, Patrick, Larry, Christie, John and Margaret (Aunt).[5] Patrick Brady, her father, married Brigid Savage, a Fingal woman who was the best step dancer of her day in the North County.[5] Margaret had three known siblings, Walter who died as an infant in 1855, as did Brigid in 1860.[5] Another sister, Catherine, died in 1888 leaving a young family behind.[5] Margaret was educated by the Sisters of St Vincent de Paul.[6] She was employed as a stationery shop assistant where she met her future husband, James Pearse.[7][8]

Marriage & Children[edit]

Pearse Family c.1887. William stands beside his father, Mary Brigit sits on her mother's knee, while Margaret sits to their left. Patrick is standing on the ground.

In 1877 she married James Pearse (his second marriage) at St. Agatha’s church, off the North Strand.[9][10] James was born in Bloomsbury, Middlesex, on the 8th of December, 1839, and later lived in Birmingham.[8] He came to Ireland to work as a sculptor in the late 1850s with his first wife, Emily Susanna Fox, who later died in 1876.[7][8]

Margaret and James had four children together.[3][5] The first three children are Margaret Mary born 4 August 1878,[5][11] Patrick born 10 November 1879[5][12] and William born 15 November 1881.[5][13] All three children were born while the family lived in 27 Great Brunswick St.[3] Their youngest child, Mary Brigid, was born 29 September 1888,[14] by which time the family had moved to Newbridge Avenue, Sandymount.[3] Margaret’s aunt, Margaret Brady, an Irish speaker, was a frequent visitor to the family home and encouraged the children's interest in the Irish language and culture.[5] Her husband James Pearse passed away in 1900.[15] Margaret Pearse did not permit her children to play with other children, however, she supported her children in all their aspirations.[6] She had a very strong relationship and consequent effect on her eldest son, Patrick. She took over the responsibility of Housekeeper at the school at St. Enda's and was respected by the pupils who attended there.[16]

Political career[edit]

Margaret supported both son’s political beliefs. After their execution, she wished to maintain their legacy and became involved in political life.[3] She joined Sinn Féin after the Rising and gave support and endorsement to candidates during the 1918 Westminster election. During the 1920 Poor Law Elections for the Rathmines area of Dublin, Margaret stood as a Sinn Féin candidate and was elected on the first count.[17] She was elected to Dáil Éireann as a Sinn Féin Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin County constituency at the 1921 elections.[18]

She strongly opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty, as did all the female TDs. She stated during the Treaty debate that:

"I rise to support the motion of our President for the rejection of the Treaty. My reasons for doing so are various, but my first reason for doing so I would like to explain here today is my son's account. It has been said here on several occasions that Patrick Pearse would have accepted this Treaty. I deny it. As his mother I deny it, and on his account I will not accept it.'"[19]

Later she continued in a similar vein:

"Always we had to be on the alert. But even the Black and Tans alone would not frighten me as much as if I accepted this Treaty; because I feel in my heart - and I would not say it only I feel it - that the ghosts of my sons would haunt me."[19]

Following the ratification of the Treaty she left the Dáil with the other anti-Treaty deputies. She was defeated at the 1922 general election.[20] She supported those who opposed the Treaty during the Irish Civil War and continued to be a member of Sinn Féin until 1926. In 1926 she left the party conference with Éamon de Valera and became a founder member of Fianna Fáil. She never stood for election again.

Her daughter Margaret Mary Pearse also joined Fianna Fáil, and served as a TD from 1933 to 1937 and later served in Seanad Éireann as a Senator from 1938 until her death in 1968.[21]

Later Life & Legacy[edit]

Last letter from Patrick Pearse to his mother. Written 3 May 1916 from Kilmainham jail.

At the launch of The Irish Press newspaper Margaret was asked to press the button to start the printers rolling. At many public occasions she stated that were her sons alive they too would have joined Fianna Fáil. Accordingly, Patrick Pearse is recognised as the spiritual figurehead of the party to this day.

Patrick Pearse founded St. Enda's in 1908 and was the headmaster up until the time of his execution.[16] After Patrick’s death, the responsibility for running the school fell to Margaret Pearse and her two daughters, Mary Margaret Pearse and Mary Brigid Pearse.[16] As Patrick Pearse had died without a will, the school was left in a precarious financial position.[16] In May 1924 when Margaret Pearse was aged 70, she undertook a trip to America to raise funds for the school, alongside showing support for Éamon de Valera and the Irish Republic.[22] At an event in Brooklyn on May 19, 1924, when referencing the execution of her two sons, Margaret declared herself the “proudest mother in Ireland”.[23] She also stated that Michael Collins had attempted to “bribe” her with an offer to subsidise the school, which she refused.[23] During a meeting in Seattle on August 11, 1924, she again discussed her sons and how she believed “the best way to honour their memory was to carry on their work for Ireland”.[22] Margaret raised over $10,000 in donations for the school during the trip.[22] Notwithstanding Margaret’s fundraising activities, St. Enda’s continued to decline and eventually closed in 1935.[16] Great Brunswick Street, where Margaret and the Pearse family originally lived, was renamed Pearse Street in 1920 by a resolution passed at the Dublin City Council meeting.[24]

Death[edit]

Margaret Pearse died in 1932. She was honoured with a large state funeral and a motion was passed at the meeting of Dublin City Council expressing sympathy with the Pearse family.[25] On April 26, 1932 sizeable crowds paid their respects as her funeral procession made its way through the streets of Dublin.[26] At the General Post Office, where Patrick and William fought during the Easter Rising, the funeral cortege paused for a minute’s silence before proceeding to Glasnevin Cemetery.[26] Éamon de Valera gave an oration as she was laid to rest, which praised her inspiring courage, charity and cheerfulness during the years after her son’s death.[26]

After Margaret’s death, her daughter, Mary Margaret, continued to reside at St. Enda’s. Upon Mary Margaret’s death in 1968, as per her mother’s request, she passed the house on to the people of Ireland.[27]

Further reading[edit]

  • Tim Pat Coogan (1995): De Valera, Long Fellow, Long Shadow.
  • Fianna Fáil Publication (2002): Republican Days – 75 Years of Fianna Fáil.
  • Roisín Higgins and Regina Uí Chollatáin (2009): The Life and After-Life of P.H. Pearse.
  • Mary Bridget Pearse (1979): The Home Life of Pádraig Pearse.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Margaret Brady" (PDF). St. Lawrence O'Toole Baptisms. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Margareta Brady - Irish Genealogy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/9d0cbe0103359
  3. ^ a b c d e f Dictionary of Irish Biography. (2009). Cambridge University press. Retrieved November 1, 2016 from http://dib.cambridge.org/viewReadPage.do?articleId=a7246&searchClicked=clicked&quickadvsearch=yes
  4. ^ Margaret Pearse - CSO - Central Statistics Office. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/ep/p-1916/1916irl/cpr/cwr/mp/
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k “The Home Life of Padraic Pearse” Edited by Mary Brigid Pearse. Published by Mercier press Dublin and Cork.
  6. ^ a b WBTM-11 Margaret Pearse | Dublin City Council. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://www.dublincity.ie/image/libraries/wbtm-11-margaret-pearse
  7. ^ a b Emily Susanna /Fox/ - Family Search. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:2:S1X5-W9M
  8. ^ a b c Pearse, James. (n.d.). In Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720-1940. Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://www.dia.ie/architects/view/4302/PEARSE,+JAMES+*#tab_biography
  9. ^ Thornley, David. (1971). “Patrick Pearse and the Pearse Family”. Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review, 60(239/240), 332-346. Retrieved November 1, 2016 from http://www.jstor.org/stable/30088734
  10. ^ Jacobus Pearse & Margarita Brady - Irish Genealogy. Retrieved November 23, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/43fe210101368
  11. ^ Margaret Mary Pierce - Irish Genealogy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/5342340247545
  12. ^ Patrick Henry Pierce - Irish Genealogy. (n.d). Retrieved November 20, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/b2dfcc0248666
  13. ^ William James Pierce - Irish Genealogy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/6910000250844
  14. ^ Mary Bridget Pierse - Irish Genealogy. (n.d). Retrieved November 21, 2016 from https://churchrecords.irishgenealogy.ie/churchrecords/details/71951d0253928
  15. ^ James /Pearse/ - Family Search. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2016 from https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/2:2:S1X5-7BS
  16. ^ a b c d e Sisson, Elaine. (2004). Pearse’s Patriots: St Enda’s and the cult of boyhood. Cork: Cork UP.
  17. ^ The local government elections. (1920, June 9). The Irish Times. Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/archive/1920/0609/Pg004.html.
  18. ^ "Ms. Margaret Pearse". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 26 April 2009. 
  19. ^ a b Anti Treaty Debate. (1922). Houses of the Oireachtas. Retrieved November 21, 2016 from http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/DebatesWebPack.nsf/takes/dail1922010400003?opendocument&highlight=margaret%20pearse
  20. ^ "Margaret Pearse". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 26 April 2009. 
  21. ^ Margaret Mary Pearse. (n.d.). In Dail Eireann Members’ Directory. Retrieved November 20, 2016 from http://www.oireachtas.ie/members/default.asp?MemberName=margaret+mary+pearse&disp=src&housetype=0&HouseNum=2&ConstID=7&ac=0
  22. ^ a b c Eichacker, Joanne Mooney. (2002). Irish Republican women in America: Lecture tours 1916-1925. Dublin: Irish Academic Press
  23. ^ a b Pleads for Dublin school. (1924, May 19). The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2016 from http://hn.bigchalk.com/
  24. ^ Dublin City Council. (1920, October). Minutes of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin. Item 598. Dublin City Public Library & Archives, 138-144 Pearse Street, Dublin 2
  25. ^ Dublin City Council. (1932, April). Minutes of the Municipal Council of the City of Dublin. Item 82. Dublin City Public Library & Archives, 138-144 Pearse Street, Dublin 2.
  26. ^ a b c The late Mrs. Pearse. Public funeral in Dublin. (1932, April 27). The Irish Times. Retrieved November 21, 2016 from https://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/archive/1932/0427/Pg007.html#Ar00700:8C94B69924EF8F15D592C5EF85A79C8947B795D8A29948BC8B88C48F08DE8CBBDA902BEF87946D9244A984F5A086C5BB86E5A08855BB9328909688AA9669EE99BA0392AA8895DA9D96FD3D99DD5294358F98D5A9927D3D966D52
  27. ^ After the rising - Ms Margaret Pearse - Pearse Museum. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2016 from http://pearsemuseum.ie/after-the-rising/