John A. Costello
|John A. Costello|
2 June 1954 – 20 March 1957
|Preceded by||Éamon de Valera|
|Succeeded by||Éamon de Valera|
18 February 1948 – 13 June 1951
|Preceded by||Éamon de Valera|
|Succeeded by||Éamon de Valera|
20 June 1891|
|Died||5 January 1976
|Political party||Fine Gael|
|Spouse(s)||Ida Mary O'Malley|
|Children||4 sons, 1 daughter|
|Alma mater||University College Dublin
- For other persons named John Costello, see John Costello (disambiguation)
John Aloysius Costello (Irish: Seán Alabhaois Mac Coisdealbha, 20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926 to 1932 and Taoiseach from 1948 to 1951 and 1954 to 1957.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Irish Free State
- 3 Taoiseach (1948–1951)
- 4 Taoiseach (1954–1957)
- 5 Retirement
- 6 Governments
- 7 See also
- 8 Further reading
- 9 References
John A. Costello was born on 20 June 1891, in Dublin, younger son of John Costello senior, a civil servant, and Rose Callaghan. He was educated from 1903 at St Joseph's Christian Brothers School in Fairview, Dublin. He moved to the O'Connell School for senior classes, and then attended University College Dublin and graduated with a degree in modern languages and law. He studied at King's Inns to become a barrister, winning the Victoria Prize there in 1913 and 1914.
Costello was called to the bar in 1914 and practised as a barrister until 1922.
Irish Free State
In 1922 Costello joined the staff of the Attorney General in the newly established Irish Free State. Three years later he was called to the inner bar and the following year, 1926, he became Attorney General to the Cumann na nGaedheal government, led by W. T. Cosgrave. While serving in this position he represented the Free State at Imperial Conferences and League of Nations meetings.
He was also elected a Bencher of the Honourable Society of King's Inns. Costello lost his position as Attorney General when Fianna Fáil came to power in 1932. The following year, however, he was elected to Dáil Éireann as a Cumann na nGaedheal (later Fine Gael) TD.
On 28 February 1934, during a Dáil debate on a bill to outlaw the wearing of uniforms (a bill specifically designed to curtail the Blueshirts, a far-right paramilitary movement then associated with Fine Gael), Costello made a speech opposing the bill that has generated controversy ever since. In response to an assertion by Minister for Justice P. J. Ruttledge that the Blueshirts had fascist leanings like the Italian Blackshirts and German Brownshirts, and that other European nations had taken similar actions against similar organisations, Costello stated:
|“||The Minister gave extracts from various laws on the Continent, but he carefully refrained from drawing attention to the fact that the Blackshirts were victorious in Italy and that the Hitler Shirts were victorious in Germany, as, assuredly, in spite of this Bill...the Blueshirts will be victorious in the Irish Free State.||”|
The remark was a small part of a much longer speech whose main point was that the bill was an unconstitutional over-reaction by the Fianna Fáil government and an unfair scapegoating of the Blueshirts movement. However, the quote has since been the subject of much historical debate regarding the extent to which the Blueshirts, and by extension Fine Gael – and Costello himself – had ties to European fascist movements.
Other Dáil activity
During the Dáil debate on the Emergency Powers Act 1939 Costello was highly critical of the delegation of powers, stating that "… we are asked not merely to give a blank cheque, but, to give an uncrossed cheque to the Government." He lost his seat at the general election of 1943, but regained it when de Valera called a snap election in 1944. From 1944 to 1948 he was Fine Gael's front-bench spokesman on External Affairs.
1948 general election
In 1948 Fianna Fáil had been in power for sixteen consecutive years and had been blamed for a downturn in the economy following World War II. The general election results showed Fianna Fáil still the largest party, with twice as many seats as the nearest party, Fine Gael. While it looked as if Fianna Fáil were heading for a seventh consecutive victory all the other parties in the Dáil joined to form the first inter-party government in the history of the Irish state. The coalition consisted of Fine Gael, the Labour Party, the National Labour Party, Clann na Poblachta, Clann na Talmhan and several Independent TDs. While it looked as if co-operation between these parties would not be feasible a shared opposition to Fianna Fáil and Éamon de Valera overcame all other difficulties and the coalition government was formed.
Since Fine Gael was the largest party in the government it had the task of providing a suitable candidate for Taoiseach. Naturally it was assumed that its leader, Richard Mulcahy, would be offered the post. However, he was an unacceptable choice to Clann na Poblachta and its deeply republican leader, Seán MacBride. This was due to Mulcahy's record during the Civil War. Instead, Fine Gael and Clann na Poblachta agreed on Costello as a compromise candidate. Costello had never held a ministerial position nor was he involved in the Civil War. When told by Mulcahy of his nomination Costello was appalled, content with his life as a barrister and as a part-time politician. He was persuaded to accept the nomination as Taoiseach by close non-political friends.
Declaration of the republic
During the campaign Clann na Poblachta had promised to repeal the External Relations Act of 1936, but did not make an issue of this when the government was being formed. However, Costello and his Tánaiste, William Norton of the Labour Party, also disliked the act. During the summer of 1948, the Cabinet discussed repealing the act; however, no firm decision was made.
In September 1948, Costello was on an official visit to Canada when a reporter asked him about the possibility of Ireland leaving the British Commonwealth. Costello, for the first time, declared publicly that the Irish government was indeed going to repeal the External Relations Act and declare Ireland a republic. It has been suggested that this was a reaction to offence caused by the Governor General of Canada at the time, the Earl Alexander of Tunis, who was of Northern Irish descent and who allegedly arranged to have placed symbols of Northern Ireland—notably a replica of the famous Roaring Meg cannon used in the Siege of Derry—in front of Costello at an official dinner. Costello made no mention of these aspects on the second reading of the Republic of Ireland Bill on 24 November and, in his memoirs, admitted that Alexander's behaviour had in fact been perfectly civil and could have had no bearing on a decision which had already been made.
The news took the British government and even some of Costello's ministers by surprise. The former had not been consulted and, following the declaration of the republic in 1948, the UK passed the Ireland Act in 1949. This recognised the Republic of Ireland and guaranteed the position of Northern Ireland within the United Kingdom for so long as a majority there wanted to remain in the United Kingdom. It also granted full rights to any citizens of the republic living in the United Kingdom. Ireland left the Commonwealth on 18 April 1949, when the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 came into force. Frederick Henry Boland, Secretary of the Department of External Affairs, said caustically that the affair demonstrated that "the Taoiseach has as much notion of diplomacy as I have of astrology." The British envoy Lord Rugby was equally critical of what he called a "slipshod and amateur" move.
Mother and Child Scheme
In 1950 the independent-minded Minister for Health, Noel Browne, introduced the Mother and Child Scheme. The scheme would provide mothers with free maternity treatment and their children with free medical care up to the age of sixteen, which was normal provision in other parts of Europe at that time. The bill was opposed by doctors, who feared a loss of income, and Roman Catholic bishops, who feared the scheme could lead to birth control and abortion. The Cabinet was divided over the issue, many feeling that the state could not afford such a scheme priced at £2,000,000 annually. Costello and others in the Cabinet made it clear that in the face of such opposition they would not support the minister. Browne resigned from the government on 11 April 1951, and the scheme was dropped. He immediately published his correspondence with Costello and the bishops, something which had hitherto not been done. Derivatives of the Mother and Child Scheme would be introduced in Public Health Acts of 1954, 1957 and 1970.
Costello took the opportunity to reconfirm his beliefs in Catholicism on 12 April 1951, in his speech on Dr. Browne's resignation: "I have no hesitation in saying that we, as a Government, representing a people, the overwhelming majority of whom are of the one faith, who have a special position in the Constitution, when we are given advice or warnings by the authoritative people in the Catholic Church, on matters strictly confined to faith and morals, so long as I am here—and I am sure I speak for my colleagues—will give to their directions, given within that scope—and I have no doubt that they do not desire in the slightest to go one fraction of an inch outside the sphere of faith and morals—our complete obedience and allegiance." ... "I am an Irishman second, I am a Catholic first, and I accept without qualification in all respects the teaching of the hierarchy and the church to which I belong."
The Costello Government had a number of noteworthy achievements. A new record was set in house-building, the Industrial Development Authority and Córas Tráchtála were established, and the Minister for Health, Noel Browne, with the then new Streptomycin, brought about an advance in the treatment of tuberculosis. Ireland also joined a number of organisations such as the Organization for European Economic Co-operation and the Council of Europe. However, the government refused to join NATO while the British remained in Northern Ireland. The scheme to supply electricity to even the remotest parts of Ireland was also accelerated.
While the "Mother and Child" incident did destabilise the government to some extent, it did not lead to its collapse as is generally thought. The government continued; however, prices were rising, a balance of payments crisis was looming, and two TDs withdrew their support for the government. These incidents added to the pressure on Costello and so he decided to call a general election for June 1951. The result was inconclusive but Fianna Fáil returned to power. Costello resigned as Taoiseach. It was at this election that Costello's son, Declan, was elected to the Dáil.
Over the next three years while Fianna Fáil was in power a dual-leadership role of Fine Gael was taking place. While Richard Mulcahy was the leader of the party, Costello, who had proved his skill as Taoiseach, remained as parliamentary leader of the party. He resumed his practice at the Bar; what is arguably his most celebrated case, the successful defence of The Leader against a libel action brought by the poet Patrick Kavanagh, dates from this period. Kavanagh generously praised Costello's forensic skill, and the two men became friends.
At the 1954 general election Fianna Fáil lost power. A campaign dominated by economic issues resulted in a Fine Gael-Labour Party-Clann na Talmhan government coming to power. Costello was once again elected Taoiseach.
The government could do little to change the ailing nature of Ireland's economy, with emigration and unemployment remaining high, and external problems such as the Suez Crisis compounding the difficulty. Costello's government did have some success with Ireland becoming a member of the United Nations in 1955, and a highly successful visit to the United States in 1956, which began the custom by which the Taoiseach visits the White House each St. Patrick's Day. Although the government had a comfortable majority and seemed set for a full term in office, a resumption of IRA activity in Northern Ireland and Britain caused internal strains (see Border Campaign). The government took strong action against the republicans.
In spite of supporting the government from the backbenches, Seán MacBride, the leader of Clann na Poblachta, tabled a motion of no confidence, based on the weakening state of the economy and in opposition to the government's stance on the IRA. Fianna Fáil also tabled its own motion of no confidence, and, rather than face almost certain defeat, Costello again asked President Seán T. O'Kelly to dissolve the Oireachtas. The general election which followed in 1957 gave Fianna Fáil an overall majority and started another sixteen years of unbroken rule for the party. Some of his colleagues questioned the wisdom of Costello's decision to call an election; the view was expressed that he was tired of politics, and depressed by his wife's sudden death the previous year.
Following the defeat Costello returned to the bar. In 1959, when Richard Mulcahy resigned the leadership of Fine Gael to James Dillon, Costello retired to the backbenches. Costello could have become Party Leader had he been willing to act in a full-time capacity. He remained on as a TD until 1969 when he retired from politics, being succeeded by Garret FitzGerald as Fine Gael TD for Dublin South–East.
During his career he was presented with a number of awards from many universities in the United States. He was also a member of the Royal Irish Academy from 1948. In March 1975 he was made a freeman of the city of Dublin, along with his old political opponent Éamon de Valera. He practised at the bar up to a short time before his death in Dublin on 5 January 1976, at the age of 84.
The following governments were led by Costello:
- 5th Government of Ireland (February 1948–June 1951)
- 7th Government of Ireland (June 1954–March 1957)
- "Mr. John A. Costello". Oireachtas Members Database. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- "John A. Costello". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- Dáil Éireann – Volume 50 – 28 February 1934. Dublin: Oireachtas. p. 15. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Kirk, Tim; Anthony McElligott (1999). Opposing fascism: community, authority and resistance in Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 91.
- Anonymous (1974). International solidarity with the Spanish Republic, 1936–1939. Moscow: Progress Publishers. p. 191.
- McCullagh, David (2010). The Reluctant Taoiseach: A Biography of John A. Costello. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan. p. 536. ISBN 978-0-7171-4646-8.
- Ó Longaigh, Seosamh; edited by; Keogh, Dermot & O'Driscoll, Mervyn (2004). Emergency Law in Action, 1939–1945 (Ireland in World War II: Diplomacy and Survival). Cork: Mercier Press. p. 64. ISBN 1-85635-445-8.
- McCullagh pp.157–165
- McCullagh p.159
- John A. Costello, Compromise Taoiseach, Anthony J. Jordan, Westport Books, 2007, pp. 9–13. ISBN 978-0-9524447-8-7.
- McCullagh p.209
- McCullagh p.210
- http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/0113/D.0113.194811240051.html Dáil Éireann – Volume 113 – 24 November 1948 The Republic of Ireland Bill, 1948—Second Stage
- McCullagh pp.207–212
- McCullagh p.197
- http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/0115/D.0115.194905100042.html Dáil Éireann – Volume 115 – 10 May 1949 Protest Against Partition—Motion.
- "Irish Times" timeline, 22 July 2011
- Dáil Éireann – Volume 125 – 12 April 1951 Adjournment Debate—Resignation of Minister; seen on 11 December 2011
- McCullagh p.236
- McCullagh p.256
- McCullagh pp.272–274
- McCullagh p.274
- McCullagh p.285
- McCullagh p.331
- McCullagh p.366
- John A. Costello, Compromise Taoiseach, Anthony J. Jordan, Westport Books, 2007, pp. 163–64, ISBN 978-0-9524447-8-7.
- "The Reluctant Taoiseach". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 15 October 2010.