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|Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) for Nagercoil|
12 June 1895|
Nesarpuram, Palliyadi, Vilavancode Taluk, Southern Travancore, Travancore
|Died||1 June 1968|
|Political party||Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (TTNC) and Indian National Congress|
A. Nesamony, sometimes known as Marshal Nesamony, was a political leader from Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India. He was the second son of Kesavan Appavu Nadar, born on 12 June 1895 at Nesarpuram, Palliyadi in Vilavancode Taluk, Kanyakumari district. He graduated from Maharaja's College in Thiruvananthapuram, and studied at law college in Thiruvananthapuram. He began practising in 1921. He was among those involved with the merger of four Taluks from Southern Travancore to Tamil Nadu. Marshal Nesamony is affectionately called as Kumari Thanthai (Father of Kanyakumari district).
He was educated at Scott Christian High School and then at C.M.S. College in Tirunelveli. While studying at C.M.S. College, he was elected as students' leader, which provided him with an opportunity to attend the Congress Conference[vague] at Calcutta. Influenced by Mahatma Gandhi at that time, he chose to wear only Khadi cotton dresses throughout his life. He graduated with a BA degree from Maharaja's College, Trivandrum, after which he began teaching, spending a year at Kurnool Bishop Heeber High school. He later became headmaster at Salvation Army Middle School in Trivandrum. Simultaneously he pursued his law studies at Government Law College, Thiruvananthapuram. He married in September 1914.
Nesamony registered as a lawyer at Nagercoil Sessions Court in 1921. He became a criminal lawyer at Nagercoil Bar. He was elected as the president of Nagercoil Lawyers' Association in 1943. In the same year he was also elected as the chairman of Nagercoil Municipal Council.
- 1943-1947: Chairman of Nagercoil Municipality
- December 1944: Founded Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (TTNC) movement
- 1945-1947: Member of Travancore Legislative (Thirumoolam) Assembly and nominated member to the Senate of the Travancore University
- October 1947: Launched TTNC as a political party
- 1948-1952: Member of Travancore-Cochin Constituent Assembly & leader of TTNC parliamentary party in assembly
- 1955-1956: President of TTNC
Kanyakumari district merger with Tamil Nadu
Feudalism prevailed in the erstwhile state of Travancore. The jenmi system protected the socioeconomic and political status of the upper castes only, while the lower castes were exploited in many ways. Events such as the Upper Cloth Controversy and the Temple Entry Proclamation were reactions to this.
A consequence of the social oppression and political repression was an ongoing campaign for recognition by the affected groups during the later nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries. This was evidenced by, for example. the creation of the Nair Service Society and the SNDP.
The agitation intensified after Indian independence. A campaign was launched under the auspices of a political movement called the Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (TTNC), to fight against the social ills that existed in the former state of Travancore. The TTNC later converted into a political party in order to contest elections. It culminated in the formation of Kanyakumari district and its subsequent merger with Tamil Nadu on 1 November 1956 during the linguistic reorganisation of states.
Death and legacy
There have been various tributes paid to his memory since that time. These include:
- the establishment of Nesamony Memorial Christian College at Marthandam
- the erection of a statue near Anna bus-stand in the heart of Nagercoil, together with a memorial building
- the creation of a satellite township called Nesamony Nagar on the outskirts of Nagercoil, where the headquarters of the former Nesamony Transport Corporation (a Tamil Nadu government undertaking) existed
- the naming of the bridge built across the Kuzhithurai river as Nesamony Paalam
- his birthplace in Palliyadi was named Nesarpuram.
- a park near Thingalnagar-Monday Market Bus-stand in Kanyakumari district was named Nesamony Poonga
- the central government published commemorative postal envelopes in recognition of the centenary of his birth in 1995.
- Tamil Nadu government opened a memorial on 27 February 2014 at Nagercoil
- Joy Gnanadason,`A Forgotten History`,1994, Gurukul L.T. College and Research Institute,Chennai, page:151
- Janab A.Abdul Razak,(Ex-M.P.)`Nesamony - A Turning-point in History`2009,Nagercoil, page:1.
- Peter, D.; Peter, Ivy (2009). Liberation oh the oppressed: a continuous struggle. Nagercoil: Kanyakumari Institute of Development Studies. pp. 45–46.
- Volume I, 1951 Indian general election, 1st Lok Sabha Archived 4 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Volume I, 1962 Indian general election, 3rd Lok Sabha
- Volume I, 1967 Indian general election, 4th Lok Sabha Archived 18 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- 1957 Madras State Election Results, Election Commission of India
- Nagam Aiya, `Travancore State Manual`, Vol.III, Page:116, Reprint 1989
- Nossiter, Thomas Johnson (1982). "Kerala's identity: unity and diversity". Communism in Kerala: a study in political adaptation. University of California Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-520-04667-2. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Fuller, C. J. (Winter 1975). "The Internal Structure of the Nayar Caste". Journal of Anthropological Research. 31 (4): 303–304. JSTOR 3629883.(subscription required)
- Gough, E. Kathleen (1961). "Nayars: Central Kerala". In Schneider, David Murray; Gough, E. Kathleen. Matrilineal Kinship. University of California Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-520-02529-5.
- "Birth anniversary of Nesamony". The Hindu. 15 June 2006.
- "Marshal Nesamony remembered". The Hindu. 2 November 2006.
- "Contingency plan for biomedical waste management". The Hindu. 13 June 2004.
- Joy Gnanadason,`A Forgotten History`,1994, Gurukul L.T.College and Research Institute, Chennai-10. Page;149.
- Janab A.Abdul Razak,`Nesamony - A Turning-point in History`,2009,Nagercoil. Page:413.
- P. Kandaswamy. The political career of K. Kamraj. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. pp. 122–124.
- "Jayalalithaa declares open Nesamony memorial". The Hindu. 28 February 2014.