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Marvin Heemeyer

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Marvin Heemeyer
Marvin John Heemeyer
Born(1951-10-28)October 28, 1951
DiedJune 4, 2004(2004-06-04) (aged 52)
Cause of deathSuicide
Occupation(s)United States Air Force veteran, welder, automobile repair shop owner
Known for"Killdozer" rampage

Marvin John Heemeyer (October 28, 1951 – June 4, 2004) was an American automobile muffler repair shop owner who demolished numerous buildings with a modified bulldozer in Granby, Colorado in 2004.

Heemeyer had various grudges against Granby town officials, neighbors of his muffler shop, the local press, and various other citizens of Granby. Over about eighteen months, Heemeyer secretly armored a Komatsu D355A bulldozer with layers of steel and concrete.

On Friday, June 4, 2004, Heemeyer used the bulldozer to demolish the Granby town hall, the house of a former mayor, and several other buildings. He killed himself after the bulldozer became stuck in a hardware store he was destroying. No one else was injured or killed.[1]


Marvin Heemeyer was born on October 28, 1951, on a dairy farm in South Dakota. In 1974, he moved to Colorado because he was stationed at Lowry Air Force Base.[2] In 1989,[2] he moved to Grand Lake, Colorado, about 16 miles (26 km) away from Granby.[3][4] His friends said that he had no relatives in the Granby–Grand Lake area.[5]

John Bauldree, a friend of Heemeyer's, said that he was a likable person. Heemeyer's brother Ken stated that he "would bend over backwards for anyone." While many people described Heemeyer as an affable person, local resident Christie Baker claimed that she was told that Heemeyer threatened her husband after her husband refused to pay for a disputed muffler repair.[6] Baker said her husband later paid Heemeyer $124.[6]

Heemeyer enjoyed taking snowmobile trips with friends. Heemeyer led a rescue effort on one such trip after a friend became trapped in a small avalanche.[7]

Gambling legalization

Heemeyer was strongly in favor of gambling legalization and campaigned for the cause on several occasions. At one point, he began disseminating a newspaper of his own on the issue, as he believed the local newspapers were biased against this cause.[8][9]

In 1994, a measure was proposed that would have legalized gambling in Grand Lake. Heemeyer was an avid supporter of the proposal, and so passionate about the cause that he nearly came to blows with a local reporter who was opposed to the proposal.[8]

Zoning and sewage disputes

In 1992, Heemeyer purchased 2 acres (0.8 ha) of land for $42,000 at auction with plans to lease the property to a friend who intended to build an auto repair shop on the site.[7] Present at the auction was Cody Docheff, whose family had previously owned the property. Heemeyer claimed that Cody Docheff had berated him for several minutes afterward out of anger at losing the property, however, no other party present recalled any such interaction.[7]

The property had a rudimentary sewage storage solution in the form of a buried cement mixer left by the previous owners.[7] The cost to update the sewer system would be nearly double the $42,000 Heemeyer paid for the property.

City officials told Heemeyer that putting in a septic tank was a less expensive alternative, but he rejected both options and said that the government not paying for the sewage line hookup was "extortion by government fiat".[7] Despite these setbacks, he did not withdraw his annexation request and subsequently became part of the sewer district.[7]

By 1993, Heemeyer had abandoned plans to rent the property to a friend and instead opened a muffler repair shop on the grounds.[7] According to Heemeyer, his friend had lost interest in the property in around April 1992 because of oil spills and environmental issues.[10]

In 1997, the Docheff family planned to expand their business to include a concrete batch plant and were buying up the land around their current lot, hoping to lease the remaining 23 parcels to small manufacturers.[1] They were informed by the town planning commission that they needed a "Planned Development Overlay District" permit to construct the plant as part of their Mountain Park Concrete development.[1] The commission also suggested that the Docheff family ask if they could purchase Heemeyer's plot to keep the plant away from the hotels and businesses on Route 40.[7]

Heemeyer asked for $250,000 for his property, but later claimed he had had the lot reappraised and asked for an additional $125,000. The Docheffs managed to collect $350,000, but according to Susan Docheff, Heemeyer again upped his asking price, claiming he had the property appraised again at a higher value, this time asking for $450,000.[1][7] This negotiation happened before the rezoning proposal had a public hearing at town hall.[4]

Despite the deal falling through, the Docheff family pursued their plans to expand their business, and purchased a defunct commercial subdivision opposite Heemeyer's lot. Heemeyer had attempted to buy this land just before the Docheffs, but was unsuccessful. He later proposed a land swap whereby he would receive the prime lot. The Docheffs initially accepted the offer, but Heemeyer demanded the Docheffs construct a new building on the lot at great expense. The negotiations fell apart, with Heemeyer stonewalling the Docheffs.

Heemeyer launched a public campaign against the planned concrete plant. His campaign was initially successful, with members of the public concerned about potential environmental impacts packing into hearings on the construction proposals. The Docheffs addressed these concerns by promising to install additional measures against dust and noise and presented miniatures of the plant to concerned citizens. Opposition to the proposal dwindled, and the plan was set to move forward again.[1][7] In November 2000, Heemeyer filed a lawsuit to block the project.

A city clerk wrote a letter to the newspaper arguing that Heemeyer had a vendetta against the Docheffs. The clerk referenced Heemeyer's increasingly "exorbitant" demands during negotiations for the sale of his property to the Docheffs, during which he had the land reappraised several times.

By January 9, 2001, Heemeyer had lost most of his allies in opposition to the concrete plant, and city officials almost unanimously approved its construction.[7] On January 9, 2001, the preliminary plans for the plant were approved near-unanimously, only Heemeyer remained opposed.[1][11] This made the final approval by Granby's zoning commission and trustees in April a formality.[7]

Heemeyer tried to appeal the decision, claiming the construction blocked access to his shop,[7] which it never did according to the judge handling his case,[12] a local journalist,[13] and people inspecting aerial photography.[12] He also complained to the Environmental Protection Agency; this resulted in the Docheff family having a professional noise analysis done.[1]

In June 2001, Joe Docheff made Heemeyer an offer whereby if Heemeyer dropped the lawsuit, they would provide him an easement to connect a sewer line to the new concrete plant free of charge; Heemeyer just hung up.[7] Around this time, the buried concrete truck barrel that served as Heemeyer's sewage hole filled up. Heemeyer responded by pumping his sewage with a gasoline pump into the irrigation ditch that ran behind his property.[7] Heemeyer also attempted to illegally connect to a neighbor's sewer line, but was caught and the incident reported to the sanitation district. At this point, the sewer district started enforcing the legal requirement to have a sewer hookup or a septic tank and fined Heemeyer $2,500 for it and other city code violations at his business,[14] in July 2001, nine years after he was required to have installed either.[11][7] Heemeyer was found in contempt of town code in November 2001 by the municipal court, and required to fix the connection issues before he could inhabit or use the property for business purposes again, as well as remove the truck barrel before July 2003. Heemeyer agreed before later that day rejecting it, and describing the requirements as a "form of terrorism". An attorney at the judgment reported Heemeyer muttering, "I'm just gonna bulldozer this whole place to the ground."

The bulldozer

Planning and construction

After the lawsuit against the town was dismissed in April 2002, Heemeyer blamed the failure on his lawyer and demanded a refund. Knowing the zoning decision was now final, he traveled to California, bought a Komatsu D355A bulldozer in an auction for $16,000, and had it shipped to Granby in July 2002.[1][7] He kept it outside of his business with a "For Sale" sign on it and tried to auction it, but few paid it any mind.[1][7] In October 2002, he announced the closure of the muffler repair business, putting almost all of the inventory up for sale. When the bulldozer failed to sell, he saw it as a sign from God that he had to start his mission.[7] He sold his property for $400,000 (~10x the original purchase price) to The Trash Co. in October 2003 and took out a lease for half the building he previously owned until he had "finished some work".[7][1] Within a day of the purchase closing, the new owners had completed water and sewer connections.[7]

He erected a wall to separate his space from the rest of the building and changed the locks.[1] While no one in Granby saw him, he worked on the bulldozer, illegally constructing living quarters to avoid having to return to his home in Grand Lake, which he saw as a waste of time that could be spent on the dozer.[1][15] During this period, he dumped his sewage into the same irrigation ditch he had been caught dumping into several months earlier.[7]

"It is interesting to observe that I was never caught", Heemeyer wrote. "This was a part-time project over a 1½ year time period." He was surprised that several men, who had visited the shed late the previous year, had not noticed the modified bulldozer "especially with the 2,000-pound [910 kg] lift fully exposed ... somehow their vision was clouded".[14]

During this period, Heemeyer repeatedly mentioned the bulldozer to friends and associates, as well as his intention to use it for destructive purposes.[7]


Heemeyer used this armor-plated Komatsu D355A bulldozer to destroy 13 buildings in Granby, Colorado

The bulldozer was a modified Komatsu D355A,[2] which he referred to as the "MK Tank" (or "Marv's Komatsu Tank"[7]) in audio recordings, fitted with makeshift composite armor plating covering the cabin, engine, and parts of the tracks. Three external explosions and more than 200 rounds of ammunition fired at the bulldozer had no effect on it.[15]

For visibility, the bulldozer was fitted with several video cameras linked to two monitors mounted on the vehicle's dashboard. The cameras were protected on the outside by 3-inch (76 mm) shields of clear bulletproof lexan.[15] Compressed-air nozzles were fitted to blow dust away from the video cameras.[15]

Onboard fans and an air conditioner were used to keep Heemeyer cool while driving. He had made three gun-ports, fitted for a .50 caliber rifle, a .308 caliber semi-automatic rifle, and a .22 caliber rifle, all fitted with a ½-inch (1.3 cm) steel plate.

At the time of the demolition it also contained three handguns and enough food and water to last a week.[1]

Demolition and assault

On June 4, 2004, starting at around 2:15 PM, Heemeyer began his rampage by driving his armored bulldozer through Mountain Park Concrete, owned by the Docheff family. At the time of the attack, Cody Docheff was at the concrete plant, screening topsoil at the gravel pit, when he got a notification over his radio that there was an explosion at the precast shop.[1] Several employees attempted to stop the bulldozer, by cramming objects into the treads in order to jam it, to no effect. Cody Docheff, initially believing the dozer to be under remote control, fired a pistol at it, and attempted to climb on top, to no effect, before engaging the bulldozer with his own front-end loader, again to no success. During this time, Heemeyer fired multiple rounds at the loader. A deputy from the sheriff's office arrived on the scene, followed by a Colorado State Patrol trooper, who was fired upon by Heemeyer. More sheriffs arrived, and began firing on the dozer, attempting to destroy the cameras with gunfire, but were unable to penetrate the 3-inch (7.6 cm) bulletproof plastic. At one point, Heemeyer charged at a firing position occupied by several state troopers, who evacuated mere seconds before he demolished it, with one eyewitness noting that had they taken any longer they would have been killed.[7][1]

After the concrete plant, Heemeyer turned onto Agate Avenue and headed south toward town at approximately 5 mph (8.0 km/h).[1] The officers at the plant requested a reverse 911 call be made to all residents, in order to initiate evacuations. Undersheriff Glenn Trainer climbed atop the bulldozer and rode it "like a bronc buster, trying to figure out a way to get a bullet inside the dragon".[3] He also dropped a flash-bang grenade down the bulldozer's exhaust pipe, with no apparent effect, and was later forced to jump down to avoid debris.[3][7]

Heemeyer then advanced on Granby Town Hall, which had been hosting a story hour for children in its library when the rampage began. All occupants were only evacuated moments before Heemeyer reached the building, an hour after the rampage began. Heemeyer turned to the Liberty Savings Bank, where he aimed at the corner office where a woman who was a part of the zoning board worked.[1]

Police forces were unable to damage the bulldozer, and so instead resorted to following the dozer, jogging alongside it en masse. Heemeyer next targeted several street fixtures, such as trees and traffic lights, before moving on to the offices of the local newspaper, and in turn the homes of the Thompson family, and their workplace. A scraper was brought up to try to stop the bulldozer, but it was pushed aside.[7]

Heemeyer next targeted a propane storage yard, firing fifteen bullets at the tanks, some of which contained 30,000 U.S. gallons (110,000 L). Police were forced to hurriedly evacuate all residents within a thousand yards of the site, including a senior housing complex. Heemeyer then fired upon nearby power transformers, with a high risk of igniting the tanks, but struggled to find a good angle. Heemeyer hit the transformers once and missed his other shots. "Had these tanks ruptured and exploded, anyone within one-half mile (800 m) of the explosion could have been endangered", the sheriff's department said. Twelve police officers and residents of a senior citizens complex were within such a range.[4] After leaving, he was engaged by another scraper, which he similarly defeated.[7]

At this point, local authorities and the Colorado State Patrol feared they were running out of options in terms of firepower, as the approximately 200[1] rounds fired by police had been ineffective up to that point, and that Heemeyer would soon turn against civilians in Granby. Governor Bill Owens allegedly considered authorizing the Colorado National Guard to use either an Apache attack helicopter equipped with a Hellfire missile or a two-man fire team equipped with a Javelin anti-tank missile to destroy the bulldozer. As late as 2011, Governor Owens's staff vehemently denied considering such a course of action. Members of the State Patrol, however, claim that to the contrary, the governor did consider authorizing an attack, but ultimately decided against it due to the potential collateral damage of a missile strike in the heart of Granby being significantly higher than what Heemeyer could have caused with his bulldozer.[16]

Heemeyer finally attacked the Gambles Store, targeting it due to the owner's involvement in the hearings about the batch plant.[7] As the bulldozer slowly ploughed through the building, one of the previous scrappers was maneuvered onto the sidewalk, blocking it from retreating, after which the operator fled to safety.[17] Unaware of a small basement on the property, Heemeyer dropped a tread into it as he continued through, immobilizing himself. The radiator had also been damaged, and the engine was leaking, before failing. As such, it was noted that even if Heemeyer had been able to free himself, the bulldozer would not have been able to operate much longer.[7] About a minute later, at 16:30 MST,[1] one of the SWAT team members, who had swarmed around the machine, reported hearing a single gunshot from inside the cab. It was later determined that Heemeyer had shot himself in the head with a .357-caliber handgun.[15][18]

Police first used explosives in an attempt to remove the steel plates for fear of booby traps, but after the third explosion failed, they cut through them with an oxyacetylene cutting torch.[1] After getting inside, they found the access hatch and enough food and water to last a week.[1][7] Grand County Emergency Management Director Jim Holahan stated that authorities were able to access and remove Heemeyer's body at 2 a.m. the next day, on June 5.[19]


The attack lasted two hours and seven minutes, damaging thirteen buildings, eleven of which were occupied until moments before their destruction.[4][2] His targets included the town hall, the Sky-Hi newspaper office, Gambles General Store, Maple Street Builders, Mountain Parks Electric Co, Liberty Savings Bank, Kopy Kat Graphics, the wall of his former business, the home of a former mayor (in which the mayor's 82-year-old widow then resided), and a hardware store owned by another man Heemeyer named in a lawsuit, as well as a few others.[1] The rampage knocked out natural gas service to the town hall and the concrete plant, damaged a truck, and destroyed part of a utility service center.[20] As part of the rampage, Heemeyer destroyed several trees outside a local business, that the owner had previously claimed were hurting his business.[7] The damage was estimated at $7 million,[21][22] $2 million of which was to the concrete plant, which was underinsured, resulting in a payout of $700,000.[1]

Many town records and archives were destroyed along with the town hall.[1]

Defenders of Heemeyer said that he made a point of not hurting anybody during his bulldozer rampage.[15] Ian Daugherty, a bakery owner, said Heemeyer "went out of his way" not to harm anyone.[23] Cody Docheff stated that "if Heemeyer truly didn't want to hurt anybody, he would have plundered the center of town on the weekend, when most businesses would have been empty".[1] The sheriff's department said that the fact that no one was injured was not due to good intent as much as to good luck.

On April 19, 2005, the town announced plans to scrap Heemeyer's bulldozer. The plan involved dispersing individual pieces to many separate scrap yards to prevent souvenir-taking.[24]

Although no one other than Heemeyer was killed in the incident, the modified bulldozer has occasionally been referred to as the "Killdozer".[25] It is unclear whether this is an allusion to the 1944 short story "Killdozer!" or its 1974 film adaptation, or if this is independent coinage.[26]

Heemeyer became an Internet legend to some.[27]


A search of Heemeyer's house in Grand Lake, Colorado turned up plans for the bulldozer on his PC.[1]

Investigators later found Heemeyer's handwritten list of targets of 107 people who he thought had wronged him. The Docheff family was at the top of the list (written as "Douche-eff"[7]). The list also included various buildings, companies, judges, politicians, newspaper editors and anyone who sided against him in past disputes.[1][7][28] One entrant was the local Catholic Church (which he did not damage), due to their opposition to his attempts to legalize gambling, as well as theological differences as Heemeyer was a member of the Christian Reformed Church.[7]

Prior to the rampage, Heemeyer had scrawled a list of complaints onto an old "For Sale" sign, as well as scrap paper. These ranged from the Docheffs' unwillingness to pay the large sums he requested, the sanitation district's fining of him, and that the town had approved the plant construction. The other writings suggested that God had stopped the plant from being constructed in 1992, and alluded to a belief that God had caused the deaths of multiple people who had opposed him. Heemeyer further claimed that "I was always willing to be reasonable until I had to be unreasonable", adding that "Sometimes reasonable men must do unreasonable things."[14][7]

In addition to these writings, Heemeyer recorded three audio tapes explaining his motivation for the attack. The tapes contained two separate recordings on each side for a total of six recordings. He mailed these to his brother in South Dakota shortly before stepping into his bulldozer.[29] Heemeyer's brother turned the tapes over to the FBI, who in turn sent them to the Grand County Sheriff's Department. The tapes are about 2.5 hours in length.[29] The first recording was made on April 13, 2004. The last recording was made on May 22, thirteen days before the rampage.

"God built me for this job", Heemeyer said in the first recording. He also said it was God's plan that he not be married or have a family so that he could be in a position to carry out such an attack. "I think God will bless me to get the machine done, to drive it, to do the stuff that I have to do", he said. "God blessed me in advance for the task that I am about to undertake. It is my duty. God has asked me to do this. It's a cross that I am going to carry and I'm carrying it in God's name."[30]

Other statements included in the tapes make mention of Heemeyer's view that he was an "American Patriot", with local journalist Patrick Brower suggesting this may be indicative of links to the broader patriot movement.[7]

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Bagsarian, Tom (November 1, 2005). "Terror in Granby" (PDF). The Concrete Producer. Rosemont, IL: Hanley Wood. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 14, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d "Crews Begin Dismantling Granby Bulldozer". KMGH-TV. April 15, 2005. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved June 27, 2006.
  3. ^ a b c Best, Allen (July 2004). "Looking at the dark side of paradise". Colorado Central Magazine. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d "Dozer rampage roots run deep". Durango Telegraph. June 24, 2004. Archived from the original on June 10, 2017. Retrieved March 7, 2008.
  5. ^ Brennan, Charlie; Frazier, Deborah; Good, Owen S. (June 4, 2004). "Rampage in Granby". Rocky Mountain News. Archived from the original on June 8, 2004.
  6. ^ a b Ingold, John; Brittany Anas; Howard Pankratz (June 6, 2004). "'Something snapped': Suspect called emotional, angry over rezoning fight". The Denver Post. pp. A01. 'He has threatened my husband's life,' resident Christie Baker recalled. 'He threatened my husband over a muffler.' Baker said she and her husband, Doug, had taken a truck to Heemeyer's shop, and he installed the wrong type of muffler on it. They refused to pay, and Christie Baker said they soon heard through word of mouth about Heemeyer's threat. They paid the $124 in cash, using an intermediary to give Heemeyer the money, she said.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak Brower, Patrick F (January 1, 2017). KILLDOZER: The True Story of the Colorado Bulldozer Rampage. Wilcox Swanson LLC/ dba Deer Track Publishing. ISBN 9780982352014.
  8. ^ a b Smith, Martin J. (July 25, 2004). "Martyr Without a Cause". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 2, 2023.
  9. ^ Brower, Patrick (November 29, 2017). "Heemeyer's rage started during Grand Lake gambling furor; Hatred of newspaper predated town tiff". www.skyhinews.com. Retrieved July 2, 2023.
  10. ^ "Audio: Hear from Marvin Heemeyer himself in recorded 'manifesto'". Sky Hi News. December 1, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2024. I got a hold of [him], and told him that, what had happened [...] and explained to him that there was an EPA audit against the property, 'cause there was some oil stains on the property, and there had been an oil-filled barrel, and [...] he just didn't want anything to do with the property all of a sudden...
  11. ^ a b "Granby Rampage Damage Expected To Exceed several Million". KMGH-TV. June 7, 2004. Archived from the original on January 15, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2006.
  12. ^ a b Roczniak, Justin (October 12, 2018). donoteat this Bonus Episode 2: Killdozer! (Video game).
  13. ^ Brower, Patrick (2018). "Bogus Killdozer YouTube full of false facts". Killdozer the Book. Retrieved June 29, 2023.
  14. ^ a b c "Rampager was surprised his plans went unnoticed". The Spokesman Review. June 10, 2004. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Man who bulldozed through Colo. town is dead". NBC News. June 5, 2004. Archived from the original on October 23, 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2006.
  16. ^ Franscell, Ron (2011). The Crime Buff's Guide to the Outlaw Rocky Mountains. Guilford, Connecticut: Morris Book Publishing LLC. pp. 107–108.
  17. ^ "Destroyed in Seconds - Bulldozer Rampage". Discovery. November 10, 2008.
  18. ^ Aguilar, John (June 25, 2004). "Armored dozer was bad to go: Reporters get peek inside Heemeyer's destructive machine". Rocky Mountain News. Denver. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016. He ended his rampage leaving few buildings out of his reign of terror. Granby Letter Saver inc., the Granby Beauty Salon, Luksa Family Restaurant, and places past the 4th intersection.
  19. ^ Banda, P. Solomon (June 6, 2004). "Officials: Man who drove bulldozer is dead: Colorado rampage leaves man dead of apparent self-inflicted gunshot wound". The Oakland Tribune. San Jose. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  20. ^ Banda, P. Solomon (June 5, 2004). "Bulldozer rampage smashes buildings". The Commercial Appeal. Associated Press.
  21. ^ Jason, Bellows. "The Wrath of the Killdozer". DamnInteresting.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  22. ^ Bina, Tonya. "Granby: 2004 bulldozer rampage subject of History Channel program". Sky-Hi Daily News. Archived from the original on March 1, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
  23. ^ "Armed Colorado man in bulldozer goes on rampage". The Morning Journal. MediaNews Group. June 5, 2004. Retrieved December 17, 2023.
  24. ^ Crecente, Brian D. (March 1, 2005). "Dozer digs its own grave: Used by angry resident to attack Granby, machine to be dismantled as scrap". Rocky Mountain News. Denver. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  25. ^ Sakas, Michael Elizabeth (May 24, 2018). "This Man Barely Escaped Killdozer's Path. Now He's Written A Book About Marvin Heemeyer". Colorado Public Radio.
  26. ^ Brower, Patrick (October 17, 2018). "They are asking again: Why is it called KILLDOZER?". Killdozer the Book. Retrieved May 27, 2024.
  27. ^ Donovan, John (September 16, 2021). "The Strange Story of 'Killdozer' and the Man Behind It". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved June 29, 2023.
  28. ^ "7NEWS Looks Inside Granby Work Shed Where 'Dozer Was Outfitted". KMGH-TV. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008.
  29. ^ a b Woodward, Paula (August 31, 2004). "Newly released audiotapes detail reasons for Granby bulldozer rampage". KUSA-TV. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  30. ^ "Man Who Bulldozed Granby Says He Got Idea From God". KMGH-TV. Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
  31. ^ «Если больше нет юродивых, кто скажет о беззаконии и лжи?», Kommersant.ru, May 14, 2014
  32. ^ "Tread". IMDb. Archived from the original on April 5, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2019.

Further reading

  • Bagsarian, Tom (November 1, 2005). "Terror in Granby" (PDF). The Concrete Producer. Rosemont, IL: Hanley Wood. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 14, 2016. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  • Brower, Patrick F (2017). KILLDOZER: The True Story of the Colorado Bulldozer Rampage. Wilcox Swanson LLC/ dba Deer Track Publishing. ISBN 9780982352014.

External links