Max Schultze

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Max Johann Sigismund Schultze
Max Johann Sigismund Schultze
Born March 25, 1825
Died January 16, 1874
Nationality German
Fields anatomist
Alma mater Halle
Known for Discovery of Protoplasm Theory

Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (March 25, 1825 - January 16, 1874) was a German microscopic anatomist noted for his work on cell theory.


Schultze was born at Freiburg in Breisgau (Baden). He studied medicine at Greifswald and Berlin, and was appointed extraordinary professor at Halle in 1854 and five years later ordinary professor of anatomy and histology and director of the Anatomical Institute at Bonn. He died at Bonn on 16 January 1874. He was the older brother of obstetrician Bernhard Sigmund Schultze (1827–1919).

He founded, in 1865, and edited the important Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie, to which he contributed many papers, and he advanced the subject generally, by refining on its technical methods. His works included:

  • Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Turbellarien (1851)
  • Uber den Organismus der Polythalamien (1854)
  • Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Landplanarien (1857)
  • Zur Kenntnis der elektrischen Organe der Fische (1858)
  • Ein heizbarer Objecttisch und seine Verwendung bei Untersuchungen des Blutes[1] (1865, in which the first known description of the platelet)
  • Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Retina (1866)

His name is especially known for his work on the cell theory. Uniting Félix Dujardin's conception of animal sarcode with Hugo von Mohl's of vegetable protoplasma, he pointed out their identity, and included them under the common name of protoplasm, defining the cell as a nucleated mass of protoplasm with or without a cell wall (Das Protoplasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen; ein Beiträg zur Theorie der Zelle, 1863).

Max Johann studied medicine with naturalist Fritz Müller naturalized Brazilian. Max sent periodically to a Friend Müller scientific literature, as it was also he who presented him with a small microscope manufactured in Berlin, Germany, by Friedrich Wilhelm Schiek (1857); thanks to this microscope, Müller can study crustaceans of memorable book Für Darwin, whose publication was also Johann who provided; this book empirically corroborates the theory of Selection Naural Charles Darwin.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Schultze M. Ein heizbarer Objecttisch und seine Verwendung bei Untersuchungen des Blutes. Arch Mikrosc Anat 1865;1:1-42.
  2. ^ Müller, F. Para Daewin - Für Darwin, 1864. Editora da UFSC. SC. 2009.
  3. ^ "Author Query for 'M.Schultze'". International Plant Names Index. 


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