Moderation Management

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Moderation Management
Founded 1994

Moderation Management (MM) is a secular non-profit organization providing peer-run non-coercive support groups for anyone who would like to reduce their alcohol consumption. MM was founded in 1994 to create an alternative to Alcoholics Anonymous and similar addiction recovery groups for non-dependent problem drinkers who do not necessarily want to stop drinking, but moderate their amount of alcohol consumed to reduce its detrimental consequences.


Moderation Management was founded by Audrey Kishline, a problem drinker, who did not identify with the disease theory of alcoholism (as presented in Alcoholics Anonymous and other addiction recovery twelve-step programs) finding that it eroded her self-confidence. Kishline never experienced withdrawal symptoms and was able to hold a job and stay in school while drinking. Kishline found that she could moderate her drinking with the help of cognitive-behavioral therapy principles and in 1994 founded Moderation Management as an organization for non-dependent problem drinkers to help maintain moderate alcohol use. MM maintains, however, that it is not for all problem drinkers; that there are some drinkers for whom abstinence will be the only solution.[1]

Kishline had asked many professionals for advice while she was establishing the fellowship, including psychologist Jeffrey A. Schaler, who wrote the foreword for the first edition of the book, Moderate Drinking, used in the organization and served on the original board of trustees for MM.[2]

In 1998, MM member Larry Froistad posted a confession that he murdered his five-year-old daughter on an official MM email list.[3] Three of the approximately 200 members of the email list reported the confession to legal authorities.[4] Froistad was sentenced to 30 years of prison.[5] The incident has been studied as an online version of the bystander effect.[6]

Schaler, who wrote the original foreword for the group's book, split ways with MM over the failure of MM's leadership to condemn member Larry Froistad after he admitted his murder, and over whether or not there was a medical distinction between problem drinkers and alcoholics, the latter having a disease and the former having a habit. Schaler's foreword was replaced with one by historian Ernest Kurtz in subsequent editions.[7]

In January 2000 Kishline posted a message to an official MM email list stating that she had concluded her best drinking goal was abstinence and that she would begin attending Alcoholics Anonymous, SMART Recovery and Women For Sobriety meetings while continuing to support MM for others.[8] In March 2000, while drunk,[9] she drove her truck the wrong way down a highway, and hit another vehicle head-on killing its two passengers (a father and his twelve-year-old daughter). MM continued to grow during Kishline's time in prison.[1] She was released in August 2003 after serving 3½ years of her 4½ year sentence.[10][page needed]


MM allows members to set their own drinking goals as they feel appropriate.[1] MM encourages members to follow particular drinking guidelines, limits, goal setting techniques, and a nine-step cognitive-behavioral change program.[11]

The MM limits and guidelines were derived from the work of Dr. Martha Sanchez-Craig.[12] MM members are encouraged, but do not need to follow, the suggested guidelines, limits and steps. MM does not view non-dependent problem drinkers as alcoholics, but rather people with a bad, but controllable, habit. MM does not state that surrender or spirituality is needed to end or control the habit.[13] MM literature makes a similar distinction to Alcoholics Anonymous literature that there are problem drinkers who can return to controlled drinking and alcoholics who can not.[14]

MM groups give members a chance to identify with other problem drinkers and learn from the successes and failures of each other. Mutual support and encouragement is provided. Face-to-face meetings last about an hour, whereas online meetings are ongoing. "Crosstalk," members interrupting each other to provide feedback during meetings, is allowed. Mental health professionals are allowed to help start MM meetings, but ultimate control must be left to the participants.[13][15] A content analysis of online MM meetings found the most common types of communication by members were self-disclosure, provision of information and advice, and provision of emotional support. Similar studies of depression and eating disorder support groups have found the same patterns.[16]


The vast majority of face-to-face MM meetings occur in the United States. Active membership is estimated at about 500 people at any given moment, but with a larger number coming into contact with the organization through the Internet. Most MM members are white (96%), employed (81%), educated (72% have at least a college education) and on average are more secular than the rest of the population (32% identify as atheists or agnostics, only 16% regularly attend religious services). MM attracts an equal number of men and women (49% are female) and a large number of people under 35 years of age (24%),[17] with a much larger percentage (76%) of people who are over 35 years of age.[citation needed]

MM members mostly describe themselves as being non-dependent problem drinkers. In general, MM members report having a mild history of substance-abuse problems before joining, with 40% having consumed four or fewer drinks per drinking day and less than 10% experienced serious withdrawal symptoms or comorbid drug abuse.[17]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Humphreys, Keith (2004). "Chapter 2: An international tour of addiction-related mutual-help organizations: Moderation Management". Circles of Recovery: Self-Help Organizations for Addictions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–73. ISBN 0-521-79277-0. 
  2. ^ Schaler, Jeffrey A. (1994). "Foreword". In Kishline, Audrey. Moderate Drinking: The New Option for Problem Drinkers (First ed.). See Sharp Press. 
  3. ^ Harmon, Amy (April 1998). "On-Line Trail to an Off-Line Killing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  4. ^ Decarlo, Lisa (May 1998). "Murder, She Read". New York. Retrieved 2017-12-29. 
  5. ^ "Agreement Calls for 30-Year Sentence". The New York Times. August 2008. 
  6. ^ Markey, Patrick M.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Wells, Shannon M. (2003). "Applications of Social and Personality Psychology to Computer Mediated Communications". In Arlsdale, John Z. Trends in Social Psychology. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 91–109. ISBN 1590337263. OCLC 52552028. 
  7. ^ Schaler, Jeffrey A. (January 2000). "Chapter 10: Moderation Management and Murder". Addiction Is a Choice. Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing. pp. 107–114. ISBN 0-8126-9403-1. 
  8. ^ Kishline, Audrey (2000-01-20). "Announcement from Audrey". Moderation Management (Mailing list). Archived from the original on 2001-03-06. 
  9. ^ Girvan, Amy (March 2015). "The next AA? Welcome to Moderation Management, where abstinence from alcohol isn't the answer". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-12-29. After starting MM, Kishline left the group, realizing that she could not moderate her drinking after all. She returned to AA, then fell off the wagon, drunk-driving in March 2000 and killing a man and his 12-year-old daughter. 
  10. ^ a 1. Cover Image Face to Face : A Deadly Drunk Driver, a Grieving Young Mother, and Their Astonishing True Story of Tragedy and Forgiveness by Audrey Kishline, Sheryl Maloy, Meredith Books 2007
  11. ^ Solomon, Melanie (2005). "Part Three: Moderation Management". AA: Not the Only Way. Capalo Press. pp. 39–41. ISBN 0-9762479-9-2. 
  12. ^ Sanchez-Craig, Martha; Wilkinson, D. Adrian; Davila, Rafaela (1995). "Empirically based guidelines for moderate drinking: 1-year results from three studies with problem drinkers". American Journal of Public Health. 85 (6): 823–828. doi:10.2105/AJPH.85.6.823. PMC 1615483Freely accessible. PMID 7762717. 
  13. ^ a b Rotgers, Frederick; Kishline, Audrey (1999–2000). "Moderation Management: A support group for persons who want to reduce their drinking, but not necessarily abstain". International Journal of Self-Help and Self Care. 1 (2): 145–158. doi:10.2190/8909-FFH3-44BA-HKVN. 
  14. ^ Humphreys, Keith (May 2003). "Alcohol & drug abuse: A research-based analysis of the Moderation Management controversy". Psychiatric Services. 54 (5): 621–622. doi:10.1176/ PMID 12719491. 
  15. ^ Klaw, Elena; Humphreys, Keith (2000). "Life stories of Moderation Management mutual help group members". Contemporary Drug Problems. 27 (4): 779–803. 
  16. ^ Klaw, Elena; Huebsch, Penny Dearmin; Humphreys, Keith (2000). "Communication patterns in an on-line mutual help group for problem drinkers". Journal of Community Psychology. 28 (5): 535–546. doi:10.1002/1520-6629(200009)28:5<535::AID-JCOP7>3.0.CO;2-0. 
  17. ^ a b Humphreys, Keith; Klaw, Elena (July 2001). "Can targeting non-dependent problem drinkers and providing internet-based services expand access to assistance for alcohol problems?: A study of the Moderation Management self-help/mutual aid organization". Journal of Studies on Alcohol. 62 (4): 528–532. ISSN 0096-882X. PMID 11513231. 

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