Mukkara Hatana

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The Mukkara Hatana ("The Mukkuvar War") is a 17th century palm leaf manuscript from Sri Lanka. Written in Sinhalese, the work celebrates the defeat of the Mukkuvar by the Karaiyar mercenaries, also known as Karavas, whom battled for the dominance of the western coast of Sri Lanka.[1] The manuscript is now preserved in the Hugh Nevill collection at the British Museum.[2]


The defeat of the Mukkuvar by the Karaiyars happens in the Saka era 1159, corresponding to the 15th century.[3] About 7700 Karaiyar chieftains from Kanchipuram, Kaveripattinam and Kilakarai of Tamil Nadu arrives Sri Lanka under the invitation of Parakramabahu VI of Kotte.[4]

The chieftains first overthrew the fort of Puttalam after a three month siege with the Mukkuvar, with the loss of their own 1,500 troops. The chieftains thereafter proceeded to Nagapattinam and overthrew the fort there after another four months siege with the loss of additional 1300 troops, where their royal Karaiyar leader, Manikka Thalaivan was killed.[5]

Manikka Thalaivan's sons were eventually adopted by Parakramabahu VI, one of whom is known as Sapumal Kumaraya.[6][7] The chieftains settled between Chilaw and Negombo.[5][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ N. Fernando, A. Denis (1987). Peninsular Jaffna from Ancient to Medieval Times: Its Significant Historical and Settlement Aspects. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Sri Lanka, Vol. 32. p. 83. 
  2. ^ Nadaraja, Tambyah (1972-01-01). The Legal System of Ceylon in Its Historical Setting. Brill Archive. pp. 34–35. ISBN 9004036377. 
  3. ^ McGilvray, Dennis B. (2008). Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Duke University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0822341611. 
  4. ^ Kurukshetra, Volume 4. University of Michigan: Sri Lak-Indo Study Group. 1978. p. 86. 
  5. ^ a b M.D., Raghavan (1961). The Karava of Ceylon. University of Pennsylvania: K. V. G. De Silva. pp. 14–16. 
  6. ^ "Sapumal Kumaraya and Puran Appu - Later avatars of Prince Aba?". Retrieved 2017-03-05. 
  7. ^ Kurukshetra, Volume 2. University of Michigan: Sri Lak-Indo Study Grou. 1976. p. 25. 
  8. ^ Fernando, A. Denis N. "Dona Catherina was the direct heiress by virtue of her heredity". Info Lanka.