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|Nickname(s): Punchi Romaya (Little Rome), Meepura|
|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• Mayor||Dayan Lanza|
|• Urban||30 km2 (11.58 sq mi)|
|• Metro||34 km2 (13.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||2 m (7 ft)|
|• Ethnic groups||Sinhalese, Tamils, and Muslims|
|Time zone||Sri Lanka Standard Time Zone (UTC+5:30)|
Negombo (Sinhalese: මීගමුව, translit. Mīgamuva, Tamil: நீர்கொழும்பு, translit. Nīrkoḻumpu) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the west coast and at the mouth of the Negombo Lagoon, in Western Province.
Negombo is known for its long sandy beaches and centuries old fishing industry. Negombo has a large bilingual population of Roman Catholics, known as Negombo Tamils who have their own Tamil dialect but mostly identify themselves as Sinhalese.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Negombo Lagoon
- 5 Zones and Neighborhood
- 6 Transport
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Religion
- 9 Local government
- 10 Economy
- 11 Tourism
- 12 Education
- 13 Notable personalities of Negombo
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Notes
- 17 External links
The Sinhalese name Migamuva means "Village of the honeycomb", gaining its name from a legend mentioned in Rajaveliya. The army of King Kavantissa found bee honey in a canoe near the seashore, for Viharamahadevi who was pregnant with the prince Dutugamunu. Because of this, the place was named "Mee-Gomuwa".
The shallow waters of the Negombo Lagoon provided safe shelter for seafaring vessels and became one of the key ports along with Kalpitiya, Puttalam, Colombo, Kalutara and Galle, from which the Sri Lankan kingdoms conducted external trade.
The Jaffna kings who controlled greater parts of the North-west coast of Sri Lanka, built fortifications at Negombo, Colombo and Chilaw. The language used in and around the Negombo and Chilaw area was predominantly Tamil when the Portuguese colonizers arrived in the 16th century.
Negombo served also as a shelter for Arabic vessels, whose descendant are the Sri Lankan Moors. Negombo was a major port known for its trading activity and was well known for its cinnamon cultivation. The cinnamon trade was controlled by the Jaffna kings and later by the Sri Lankan Moors.
Landing in the early 1500s, the Portuguese ousted the Jaffna Kingdom, constructed a fort in Negombo and took over the trade of cinnamon to the West. During the Portuguese occupation, the Karava (the dominant seafaring clan of Negombo), who were previously Hindu, embraced Catholicism. So successfully were they converted that today Negombo is sometimes known as 'Little Rome' and nearly two thirds of its population profess the Catholic faith.
The Portuguese restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon and maintained their control over the trade for more than a century. The decline of their power began in the 1630s when warfare between the Portuguese and the Kingdom of Kandy reached a stalemate. the King of Kandy turned to the Dutch for help. The Dutch captured Negombo from the Portuguese in 1646 and negotiated an armistice with Portugal for ten years. During this period the King of Kandy sought to provoke conflict between the nations by passing through the territories of the one to attack the other. On one occasion he captured the fort of Negombo and sent the head of the Dutch commander Adrian Vander Stell to his countrymen in Galle. Although the Dutch managed to regain control of Negombo from the King by diplomatic means, hostilities continued. In particular, the disruption of the cinnamon trade was a favourite method of the King to harass the Dutch.
The legacy of the Dutch colonial era can be seen in the Negombo fort, constructed in 1672, other Dutch buildings, churches and the extensive canal system that runs 120 km (75 mi) from Colombo in the south, through Negombo to Puttalam in the north.
Throughout the eighteenth century the demand for cinnamon from Ceylon outstripped the supply, and its quality appears to have suffered. Other factors, including the continued hostility from the Kandian government and a rival cinnamon trade from China, led to a 40% decline in the volume of cinnamon exported between 1785 and 1791. Despite attempts to clear land around Negombo and create cinnamon plantations, by the time the British commander Colonel Stuart took over the trade in 1796, it was clear that the industry was in decline. Poor policies put in place by Frederick North the first Governor of British Ceylon exacerbated the problem. By the 1830s commercial interest had moved elsewhere.
Following the British takeover of the Kingdom of Kandy in 1815, Negombo lost its strategic value as an outpost of Colombo. However it continued to develop in commercial influence. The Negombo fishery was at the heart of the seafood trade in Ceylon, and many migrant fisherman arrived annually with the profits of their ventures going into the small, prosperous town. In 1907 Negombo was connected to the massive railway project that was linking the island together under British control and encouraging the growth of plantations in coconuts, tea and coffee.
Geography and climate
Negombo is about 2 meters above sea level, and Negombo's geography is a mix of land and water. The Dutch canal flows in the heart of the city. The lagoon is one of the most scenic landmarks of Negombo. There are over 190 species of wildlife and plenty of birds in its mangroves. The northern border of the city is formed by the Ma Oya river which meets the Indian Ocean.
Negombo features a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification. The city receives rainfall mainly from the Southwestern monsoons from May to August and October to January. During the remaining months there is a little precipitation due to Convective rains. The average annual precipitation is about 2400 millimetres. The average temperature varies 24 to 30 degrees Celsius, and there are high humidity levels from February to April.
|Climate data for Negombo, Sri Lanka|
|Average high °C (°F)||30
|Average low °C (°F)||22
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||89
Negombo Lagoon is large semi-enclosed coastal water body with plenty of natural resources. The lagoon is fed by number of small rivers and the Dutch canal. It is linked to the Indian Ocean by a narrow channel to the north, near Negombo city. The lagoon and the marsh land area also support local agriculture and forestry. It has extensive mangrove swamps and attracts a wide variety of water birds. The lagoon supports so many distinct species of flora, fauna and as well as another species of birds and variety of animals. Negombo Lagoon is a major local and tourist attraction primarily for sightseeing and boating tours.
The fishermen who are based at the Negombo lagoon live in abject poverty in shanty thatch palm villages along the water's edge. They rely mainly on their traditional knowledge of the seasons for their livelihood, using outrigger canoes carved out of tree trunks and nylon nets to bring in modest catches from September through April. Their boats are made in two forms – oruvas (a type of sailing canoe) and paruvas (a large, man-powered catamaran fitted with kurlon dividers). The men are regularly forced to head out to the ocean to fish, often losing money in the chartering process. In recent years, the villagers have supplemented the income earned from fishing by collecting 'toddy', or palm sap, which is used to brew arrack.
Zones and Neighborhood
- Bolawalana 
- Ethukala 
- Kamachchodai 
- Kattuwa 
- Katuwapitiya 
- Kurana 
- Mahahunupitiya 
- Periyamulla 
- Raheemanabad 
- Udyar Thoppu 
- Wella veediya
There is a highway bus service running between from Negombo to Matara (the southern tip of the country) through Galle using the Southern Expressway.
The A3 main road from Colombo, goes through Negombo, extends to Jaffna, and Trincomalee via Anuradhapura. Negombo is connected with some of the B grade roads, and there is a good road network in and around Negombo City.
The Bus Terminal complex of Negombo has multiple facilities for passengers and public. It is served by many bus routes, connecting with some major destinations in the country.
- Negombo - Colombo. (A/C Through E03 Expressway and A3 Main Road)
- Negombo - Kaduwela (A/C Through Ganemulla)
- Negombo - Maharagama (A/C Through Ganemulla)
- Negombo - Giriulla - Narammala - Kurunegala. A/C and Normal
- Negombo - Horana A/C
- Negombo- Kalutara A/C
- Negombo - Kegalle - Kandy - Theldeniya.
- Negombo - Ratnapura - Embilipitiya - Kataragama.
- Negombo - Aluthgama (Through Ganemulla, Kadawatha and Expressway)
- Negombo - Galle (A/C Through Southern Expressway)
- Negombo - Matara. (A/CThrough Southern Expressway)
- Negombo - Ratnapura - Balangoda.
- Negombo - Urapola - Kithulgala - Hatton.
- Negombo - Gampola - Nuwara-Eliya - Welimada.
- Negombo - Puttalam - Anuradhapura - Medawachchiya - Mannar.
- Negombo - Kalutara - Galle - Matara - Tangalle.
- Negombo - Kandy - Mahiyanganaya - Ampara - Akkaraipatthu
- Negombo - Dambulla - Kekirawa.
- Negombo - Kurunegala - Polonnaruwa - Batticaloa - Katthankudi - Kalmunai.
- Negombo - Palaviya - Thalawila - Kalpitiya.
- Negombo - Ruwanwella - Deraniyagala - Avissawella.
- Negombo - Horana - Mathugama - Hiniduma - Udugama.
- Negombo - Udubaddawa - Kuliyapitiya
Due to Negombo being situated along A3 Main Road, it is served by many bus routes from Colombo to Northern and North western points of Sri Lanka including Jaffna, Vavuniya, Padaviya, Kilinochchi, Mullaitivu, Pulmude, Mannar, Kankasanthura, Point Pedro, Velvetithurai, Nikaweratiya, Panduwasnuwara, Anamaduwa and Silawathurai.
Four railway stations serve Negombo, they are: Kurana, Negombo Downtown, Kattuwa and Kochchikade. Negombo Downtown Station is the main railway station on the Puttalam railway line. It serves Panadura, via Colombo from south and to Puttalam, via Chilaw from north. The Sri Lanka Railway Department has introduced an intercity express train between Chilaw and Colombo with stops at Negombo Downtown and Kochchikade Stations.
The Negombo Downtown Station is close to the central Bus Terminal Complex. Negombo is the closest major city to the Bandaranaike International Airport.
According by the statistics of 2011, 6.3% of the population of Gampaha district live in Negombo city limits and 11.6% of the population of the district live in Negombo Metropolis. It is a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural city. Most of Negombo's residents belong to the Sinhalese majority. There are Tamil and Muslim people also living in the city. Though almost all of the residents living in Negambo are Sri Lankans there are small foreign communities that are present in the city, most notably the Chinese community.
|Sri Lankan Moor||19,364||13.67%|
|Sri Lankan Tamil||12,590||8.89%|
|Sri Lankan Chetty||91||0.06%|
Negombo is a multi-religious city. Since the beginning of European colonization, the township of Negombo has had a majority of Roman Catholics along with Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims.
- Catholic & Christian Churches
Negombo has been given the name Little Rome due to the highly ornate Portuguese-era Roman Catholic churches such as St. Mary's Church found in the township and because the majority are the Roman Catholics. St. Sebastian Church at Sea Street and Katuwapitiya, Saint Stephen’s Church, Negombo, Grand Street St.Mary's Church, St.Anne's churches at Kurana and Palangatura, St.Anthony's church Dalupotha and Our Lady of Sorrows Church, Kandawala are the biggest parishes in Negombo. There are over 25 Roman Catholic churches in the city.
There is a branch of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Negombo. The church building is just west of the intersection of Ave Maria street and Old Chilaw street. There are also Methodist churches, Baptist churches, and the other Anglican churches in Negombo.
- Buddhist Temple
Agurukaramulla Raja Maha Viharaya (Bodhirajaramaya) is a famous Buddhist temple bringing Buddhists from all over Sri Lanka to Negombo every year. Abhayasekararamaya temple (Podipansala), Sri Sudarshanaramaya, Dutugamunu viharaya and Asapuwa are famous Buddhist temples in the city.
- Hindu Kovil (Temple)
There are so many Hindu temples (Kovil) in Negombo: Kali temple, Ganapathi (Pillaiar) Temple, Kamachchi Amman Temple, Muththumari Amman Temple, Murugan (Kandaswami) Temple, Karumari Amman Temple are some of them.
- Muslim Masjid (Mosques)
There are nine Jummah Mosques in Negombo. The Kamachchoda Jummah Masjid in Kamachchoda, Negombo is one of the oldest in Sri Lanka. Another old Msajid in Negombo is the Udayar Thoppuwa Mosque, Mirigama Road, Dheen Junction, Negombo which was built in 1846 by Maththicham Saleem Lebbe Muhammed Thamby Vidane and the old building which was built in 1846 is still in use.
Negombo City Local Board began in 1878. After 44 years, it became the Urban District Council on 1 January 1922. Negombo celebrated its silver jubilee of its Urban council status in grand style in February 1948. Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester were the main patrons on the opening day of the celebrations. The Negombo Urban Council was offered Municipal status on 1 January 1950 under the municipal ordinance of 1865.
The Negombo Municipal Council has governed the city with a mayor from the government, since 1950. Negombo's mayor and the council members are elected through the local government election held every five years. There are 29 wards in the Negombo municipal boundary. Each is represented by an elected member, but[when?] there were only 26 members before the Local Government election held in 2018. The number of municipal councillors was increased to 48 according to new local government election system introduced in 2018. where 29 members are elected form wards and the rest form a preferential list.
In the Local Government Election held in 2018, United National Party Won the Negombo Municipal council led by former Western Provincial councillor Royce Fernando by securing 19 seats and Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna led By Dayan Lanza, brother of Nimal Lanza (MP) secured 16 Seats. The rest of seats were distributed among other political Parties and independent groups including Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Dayan lanza became the Mayor of Negombo with the support of minor political parties and Sri Lanka Freedom Party. Royce Fernando Became the Opposition Leader in Negombo Municipal council.
Negombo considered as one of the largest economic centre of the country. Negombo is about 5–6 km from the Bandaranaike International Airport, and the free trade zone. Negombo has a moderate fish port (used during the periods of Portuguese and Dutch colonization)
The Colombo Stock Exchange-Negombo branch and many major financial corporations have their key branches in Negombo. There are department stores, large supermarkets, and boutiques in the bustling streets of Downtown and international food outlets are being opened.
Negombo is a major tourist destination in Sri Lanka. This city is an ideal and liberal place with luxury, tropical life style, for those who want quick access to and from the country's main international airport and also to Colombo city. The 100 km canal network running through the city is still used. Outrigger canoes and modern water-craft ply this route daily, for trade and tourism. Remnants of colonization include the Dutch fort built in 1672, as well as centuries-old Portuguese and Dutch houses, administrative buildings, Dutch Canal, churches and the ceiling frescoes of St. Mary's Cathedral, Bodhirajarama Maha Viharaya (Angurukaramulla Temple) – මීගමුව බෝධිරාජාරාමය.
Negombo is home to the country's second-largest fish market, locally famous as the Lellama (Lel-La-Ma), at the north end of the lagoon. There are daily fish auctions, which give tourists a chance to meet the area's fishers, buy fish and even organise fishing trips and boating tours into the lagoon and the ocean beyond. Other nearby attractions open to visitors include Muthurajawela Marshland, which is part of a 6,000-hectare (14,826-acre) reserve. The protected mangroves of the lagoon are home to over 190 species of wildlife.
Negombo offers one of the best sandy beaches and hotels and resorts on the west coast of Sri Lanka. It draws tourists who stop over for a day on their way to or from the airport. Some quiet stretches of the beach are maintained by the tourist hotels, while others are always busy with fishermen and their equipment. Water-sports and diving are popular among visitors, with a few well-preserved coral reefs and a 50-year-old shipwreck that can be seen in the distance also known as Kudapaduwa (Ku-Da-Paa-Du-We) that serves as an artificial reef for many varieties of fish. Mora Wala (Mo-Ra-Wa-La) and Beach Park are very interesting places.
There are local handicrafts, batiks and jewellery boutiques on the beaches and the shops.
Negombo is home to some of the oldest secondary educational institutes in Sri Lanka. The leading schools are listed below.
There are also many higher educational institutes and private tuition institutes in Negombo City: Ocean University of Sri Lanka Negombo faculty conducts Nautical Engineering, Marine Science, Fisheries and other degree programmes. Pope Benedict higher educational and Cultural Centre, Gateway Graduate School, Horizon Campus, Regent Language School, ACBS Campus, IPM Institute of Sri Lanka, ACCHE, SLIMM, AIMS College, American College of Higher Education, Australian Higher Educational Centre, E-Soft Institute, Electro Technical Institute and Don Bosco Technical College, IDM Institute are some of them.
Notable personalities of Negombo
- William Mohotti Munasinghe - Aide-de-camp to the British Governor and Mudaliyar of Negombo
- Mudaliyar John de Silva Wijegooneratne Rajapakshe, J.P.(d.1909) 
- Muhammed Thamby Samsudheen Vidane Arachchi alias Dheen Arachchiar (1860 - 1915) 
He was the Vidane Arachchi of Negombo from 1896 to 1915, the highest position held by a Muslim in Negombo in the Native Department of the British Government of Ceylon. After completing the Cambridge Senior Examination he got involved in managing the family estates before being appointed as the Vidane Arachchi. He was the third child of Maththicham Saleem Lebbe Muhammed Thamby Vidane (1819–1884) of Negombo. Dheen Junction  in Negombo is named after him. Udayar Thoppuwa Mosque  at Dheen Junction in Negombo was built by his father in 1846. This Masjid is maintained by the decedents of the said Maththicham Saleem Lebbe Muhammed Thamby Vidane and have taken great interest in preserving the original building.
- Gate Mudaliyar Alexander Edmund De Silva Wijegooneratne Samaraweera Rajapakse OBE alias Gate Mudaliyar A. E. Rajapakse OBE (13 March 1866 – 20 September 1937)
Chairman, Urban Council, Negombo, 1922-1923 & 1925 to 22 August 1934. He was the first person to be the Chairmen of the Negombo Urban Council. He was the eldest Son of Mudliyar John de Silva Wijegooneratne Rajapakshe, J.P. of Negombo. Rajapakse Park and Rajapakse Broadway in Negombo are named after him.
- Proctor Samsudheen M Abdul Raheeman JPUM (1896–1965)
Chairman, Urban Council, Negombo from 20 November 1941 to 31 December 1943. He was the only Muslim to be the Chairman of the Negombo Urban Council. He was the second Muslim (first was his elder brother Proctor S. I. Dheen JP) to qualify as a Lawyer in Negombo and was the 08th (01st Muslim) President (1948-1958) of the Negombo Law Society. He was the fourth child of Muhammed Thamby Samsudheen Vithane Arachchi alias Dheen Arachchiar of Negombo. Raheemanabad  in Periyamulla Negombo is named after him
- Mudaliyar T. David Mendis
Founder and owner of Wijaya Bus Company which was nationalized on 1 January 1958 Mudaliyar Mendis Mawatha in Negombo is named after him
- Thenahandi Wijayapala Hector Mendis (16 December 1928 to 1 September 2012)
He was elected the Mayor of Negombo in 1954 and entered Parliament in 1960 from the Katana electorate as a UNP candidate. He was appointed Minister of Textile Industries in 1977, in 1989 he became the Minister of Transport and Highways, In 1993 he was appointed Leader of the House and in 1994 he became the Chief Opposition Whip in Parliament which he served till 1998. He was the third child of Mudliyar T. David Mendis of Negombo.Wijayapala Mendis Road in Negombo is named after him
- "Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka, 2012" (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka. p. 1.
- Bonta, Steven (2010). "Negombo Fishermen's Tamil: A Case of Indo-Aryan Contact-Induced Change in a Dravidian Dialect". Anthropological Linguistics. 52 (3/4): 310.
- Proceedings. International Association of Tamil Research, Department of Indian Studies, University of Malaya. 1968. p. 481.
- Senaveratna, John M. (1997). The Story of the Sinhalese from the Most Ancient Times Up to the End of "the Mahavansa" Or Great Dynasty: Vijaya to Maha Sena, B.C. 543 to A.D.302. Asian Educational Services. p. 96. ISBN 9788120612716.
- Guṇasēkara, B. (1900). The Rājāvaliya: Or, A Historical Narrative of Siṇhalese Kings from Vijaya to Vimala Dharma Sūriya II, to which are Added a Glossary and a List of Sovereigns. Government Printer. p. 24.
- De Silva, K (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. University of California Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 0-520-04320-0.
- Chitty, Simon Casie (1988). The Castes, Customs, Manners and Literature of the Tamils. Asian Educational Services. p. 33. ISBN 9788120604094.
- The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland. The Branch. 1859. p. 79.
- Pārati, Paktavatcala (1999). Coromandel fishermen: an ethnography of Paṭṭaṇavar subcaste. Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture. p. 9. ISBN 9788185452098.
- Silva, S. F. De (1954). A Regional Geography of Ceylon. Colombo Apothecaries' Company. p. 147.
- The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politics and Literature, For the Year 1817. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy. 1817. p. 511.
- The Ceylon Journal of Historical and Social Studies. Ceylon Historical and Social Studies Publications Board. 1975. p. 103.
- Dewaraja, Lorna Srimathie (1994-01-01). The Muslims of Sri Lanka: One Thousand Years of Ethnic Harmony, 900-1915. Lanka Islamic Foundation. p. 40. ISBN 9789559297000.
- Epigraphia Zeylanica: Being Lithic and Other Inscriptions of Ceylon. Printed at the Department of Government Printing, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) for the Archeological Department. 1973. p. 86.
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- "The Old Man and the Sea". Global Village. Episode 1927. 2009-04-29.
- "Udayar Thoppuwa".
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- "Department of Census and Statistics Sri Lanka - Population by ethnicity and district according to Divisional Secretary's Division, 2012".
- "Local Authorities Election 2018 Results - Sri Lanka - Adaderana". adaderana.lk.
- "SLPPs Dayan Lanza elected Mayor of Negombo despite UNP win". www.adaderana.lk. C1 control character in
|title=at position 5 (help)
- Kanakath, Pramod (16 January 2017). "48 hours in Negombo, Sri Lanka". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
Situated at Temple Road, close to the city centre, Angurukaramulla Buddhist Temple is more than 200 years old and is a great place to visit if you love culture and architecture. The façade of this temple cannot be missed from outside, as the six-meter tall Buddha statue and dragon-mouth entrance are eye-catching. The dragon-mouth entrance is unusual for a Buddhist temple, however, we are told that this is to ward off evil spirits. Inside the temple are colorful statues, sculptures and murals from different episodes of Buddha’s life. The reclining Buddha is very noteworthy.
- "Family #3729 Rajapakse of Negombo". Sri Lankan Sinhala Family Genealogy. rootsweb.
- "Family # 214 Maththicham Saleem Lebbe Muhammed Thamby Vidane (1819-1884) of Negombo".
- "Dheen Junction of Negombo".
- "Udayar Thoppuwa Mosque , Dheen Junction Negombo)".
- Excerpt for the etymology of Negombo from "Proceedings". International Association of Tamil Research, Department of Indian Studies, University of Malaya. 1968. p. 481: "In this context, it may be of interest to cite a few place-names in other parts of the Island, with a Tamil origin; in the Western Coast such as Puttalam, Ciläpam (Chilaw), Nirkolumbo (Nikumpalai, Negombo), Kalattarai (Kalutara), Pãnanturai (Pãnadura), Mätarai (Matara), Teivanturai (Dondra)..."
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