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Han Nom for Nguyễn
|Pronunciation||[ŋʷǐˀən] or [ŋʷĩən]|
|Language(s) of origin||Vietnamese|
Nguyễn is the most common Vietnamese family name. Outside of Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics as Nguyen. Vietnamese pronunciations between north and south are similar, except for the distinct tone between two dialects.
Origin and usage
The name is most likely derived from a Chinese surname. Nguyễn is the Vietnamese transliteration of the Chinese surname (阮), which is often transliterated as Ruan in Mandarin, Yuen in Cantonese, Gnieuh /ɲɥø¹³/ in Wu Chinese, or Nguang in Hokchew.
Many events in Vietnamese history have contributed to the name's prominence. In 1232, after usurping the Lý Dynasty, Trần Thủ Độ forced the descendants of the Lý to change their surname to Nguyễn. When Hồ Quý Ly overturned the Trần Dynasty, he killed many of their descendants so when the Hồ Dynasty collapsed in 1407, many of his descendants changed their surname to Nguyễn in fear of retribution. In 1592, on the collapse of the Mạc Dynasty, their descendants changed their surname to Nguyễn. When the Nguyễn Dynasty (the descendants of the Nguyễn Lords) took power in 1802, some of the descendants of the Trịnh Lords fearing retribution changed their surname to Nguyễn, while others fled north into China. The Nguyễn Dynasty awarded many people the surname Nguyễn during their rule, and many criminals also changed their surname to Nguyễn to avoid prosecution. As with other common surnames, people having this surname are not necessarily related.
In Vietnamese custom as with other East Asian cultures, the surname precedes the given names. Like many surnames in Vietnam and other Chinese-influenced cultures, the name Nguyễn is shared with those in the Chinese culture written with the same Chinese character. The Chinese character for Nguyễn is 阮.
Usage outside Vietnam
The prevalence of Nguyễn as a family name in Vietnam extends to outside the country, due to numerous and widespread Vietnamese emigrants. Outside Vietnam, the surname is commonly rendered without diacritics, as "Nguyen". Nguyen is the seventh most common family name in Australia (second only to Smith in the Melbourne phone books), and the fifty-fourth most common in France. In the United States, it is the 57th most-common family name according to the 2000 Census, as well as the most common exclusively East Asian surname, a major leap from its 229th-place ranking in 1990. It is ranked 124th in the U.S. Social Security Index. It is the fifty-sixth most common surname in Norway and tops the foreign name list in the Czech Republic.
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In Vietnamese tradition, people are referred to by their personal names and not by their family names even in formal situations. Thus, there is not as much confusion about who is being referred to as one might expect. However, some groups distinguish themselves from other Nguyễn by passing elements of their names that are usually considered middle names to their children. This practice is more common with male than with female children. Some of the prominent subgroups within the Nguyễn family are, in no particular order:
- Nguyễn Phước or Nguyễn Phúc: Surname for the Nguyễn Lords family members, and all members of the Nguyễn dynasty emperors.
- Nguyễn Đình
- Nguyễn Hữu
- Nguyễn Cảnh
- Nguyễn Khắc
- Nguyễn Tiến
- Nguyễn Đức
- Nguyễn Minh
- Nguyễn Ngọc
- Nguyễn Văn
- Nguyễn Quang
- Nguyễn Xuân
- Tôn Thất (Tôn Nữ for females): Surname for members of the Nguyễn Dynasty royal family that were not direct descendants of the Emperor.
The Vietnamese pronunciation is [ŋʷǐˀən] ( listen) in northern dialect or [ŋʷĩəŋ] ( listen) in southern dialect— in either case, pronounced as a single syllable. [ŋ] is the velar nasal found in the middle of the English word "singer". Unlike Vietnamese, this consonant is never found in initial position in English. [w] is the glide found in the English word "quick". [iə] is a rising diphthong. The sound of this diphthong is close (but not exactly identical) to the diphthong /ɪə/ found in British English Received Pronunciation in the word "ear". Finally, [n] is the same sound as in English.
Besides these vowels and consonants, Nguyễn is also pronounced with a tone in Vietnamese. In Southern Vietnam, Nguyễn is pronounced with the dipping tone, meaning the pitch of the voice first drops from a mid level to the bottom of the speaker's range of pitch, then rises back to mid. In Northern Vietnam, it is pronounced with the creaky rising tone, meaning the pitch of the voice rises from mid level to the top of the speaker's range of pitch, but with constricted vocal cords, akin to a glottal stop in the middle of the vowel. See Vietnamese tones.
Since approximately 70 (70 or 40?) percent of all Vietnamese people have the surname Nguyễn, notable people with this surname run the gamut of Vietnamese society. They range from heads of state (Nguyễn lords, Nguyễn Dynasty, Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, Nguyễn Minh Triết), poets (Nguyễn Trãi, Nguyễn Du, Nguyễn Đình Chiểu), Catholic clergymen (Nguyễn Văn Thuận), writers, scientists, composers, actors (Dustin Nguyen), professional poker players (Scotty Nguyen), former professional American football player Dat Nguyen to executed criminals (Nguyễn Tường Vân). Hồ Chí Minh was born Nguyễn Sinh Cung and used various names with the surname Nguyễn throughout his career (Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc) and was not known as Hồ Chí Minh until late in his career.
- "Vietnam: Where saying 'I love you' is impossible". BBC News. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
Pronunciation is fiendishly tricky for foreigners with the combination of "ng", tricky vowels and unfamiliar tones. The best that most of us can manage is "nwee-yen" or even just "win". The name is probably derived from a Chinese root. Over many centuries, thousands of families chose - or were forced - to change their name to Nguyen as a sign of loyalty to successive Vietnamese rulers. As a result not all Nguyens are the same. Some may be the children of former emperors, others the offspring of former rebels.
- Lê Trung Hoa, Họ và tên người Việt Nam, NXB Khoa học - Xã hội, 2005
- "Vietnamese names". Archived from the original on July 11, 2008.
- Kelly, Maura (July 27, 2011). "Nafissatou and Amadou". Slate.
- "NGUYEN Name Meaning and Origin". About.com.
- "Why Are So Many Vietnamese People Named Nguyen?". IB Times.
- The Age (2006-09-04). "Nguyens keeping up with the Joneses". Retrieved 2006-09-09.
- Melbourne City Council. "City of Melbourne - Multicultural Communities - Vietnamese". Retrieved 2006-11-27.
- French surnames
- "In Name Count, Garcias Are Catching Up to Joneses". The New York Times. November 17, 2007. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
- List of American last names in the 1990 Census
- PBS, POV: The Sweetest Sound: Popularity Index
- Statistics Norway. "Top 100 last names". Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- "Žebříčky nejčastějších jmen vedou Nováci a Nguyenové" (in Czech). Novinky. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2007-11-07.
- Bac Hoai Tran; Ha Minh Nguyen; Tuan Duc Vuong (2012). Colloquial Vietnamese: The Complete Course for Beginners. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781136682865. OCLC 823723353.
The combination of consonants ng often comes at the beginning of a word, as in the surname Nguyễn, and it is one of the other difficulties (fortunately there are not many) that Vietnamese consonants pose.
- "Either way, in the 1st district, it's a Nguyen for taxpayers". Orange County Register. 2007-02-11. Archived from the original on 2015-03-25. Retrieved 2007-02-22.
- "Nguyen-Nguyen situation". Orange County Register: Total Buzz. 2007-02-07. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2007-02-22.→ Archive copy at the Wayback Machine
|Look up Nguyen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- How to pronounce Nguyen from inogolo.com