Operation Storax

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Operation Storax
Storax Sedan nuke.jpg
Storax Sedan
Information
CountryUnited States
Test site
  • NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa
  • NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period1962-1963
Number of tests47
Test typecratering, underground shaft, tunnel
Max. yield115 kilotonnes of TNT (480 TJ)
Test series chronology
Map all coordinates in "Operation Storax" using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

Operation Storax[1] was a series of 47 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1962-1963 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Fishbowl series and preceded the Operation Roller Coaster series.

United States' Storax series tests and detonations
Name [note 1] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 2][2] Location [note 3] Elevation + height [note 4] Delivery [note 5]
Purpose [note 6]
Device [note 7] Yield [note 8] Fallout [note 9] References Notes
Sedan July 6, 1962 17:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10h 37°10′37″N 116°02′47″W / 37.17695°N 116.04626°W / 37.17695; -116.04626 (Sedan) 1,325 m (4,347 ft) - 190 m (620 ft) cratering,
peaceful research
W56 104 kt Venting detected off site, 15 MCi (560 PBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7][8] 2nd Plowshare test, cratering experiment, TN device similar to Dominic Bluestone and Swanee, 12 million tons of soil displaced, crater was 1,280 ft × 320 ft (390 m × 98 m).
Merrimac July 13, 1962 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bd 37°03′18″N 116°02′03″W / 37.05507°N 116.03411°W / 37.05507; -116.03411 (Merrimac) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 413.31 m (1,356.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected on site, 22 kCi (810 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Wichita July 27, 1962 21:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9y 37°07′47″N 116°03′26″W / 37.12967°N 116.05734°W / 37.12967; -116.05734 (Wichita) 1,265 m (4,150 ft) - 150.27 m (493.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3.5 kt Venting detected on site, 760 Ci (28,000 GBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
York August 24, 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9z 37°07′07″N 116°02′25″W / 37.11866°N 116.04022°W / 37.11866; -116.04022 (York) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 226.47 m (743.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 120 kCi (4,400 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Bobac August 24, 1962 17:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bl 37°02′46″N 116°01′28″W / 37.04613°N 116.02453°W / 37.04613; -116.02453 (Bobac) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 206.03 m (676.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Raritan September 6, 1962 17:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9u 37°07′49″N 116°02′44″W / 37.13026°N 116.04561°W / 37.13026; -116.04561 (Raritan) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 157.28 m (516.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Hyrax September 14, 1962 17:10:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bh 37°02′38″N 116°01′19″W / 37.04389°N 116.02186°W / 37.04389; -116.02186 (Hyrax) 1,197 m (3,927 ft) - 216.69 m (710.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Peba September 20, 1962 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bb 37°03′18″N 116°01′48″W / 37.05496°N 116.03°W / 37.05496; -116.03 (Peba) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 241.38 m (791.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [1][6][8][9]
Allegheny September 29, 1962 17:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9x 37°07′00″N 116°02′01″W / 37.11663°N 116.03366°W / 37.11663; -116.03366 (Allegheny) 1,271 m (4,170 ft) - 210.92 m (692.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, 1.5 kCi (56 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Mississippi October 5, 1962 17:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ad 37°08′22″N 116°03′04″W / 37.13937°N 116.0512°W / 37.13937; -116.0512 (Mississippi) 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 493.78 m (1,620.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
115 kt Venting detected, 4.9 kCi (180 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Roanoke October 12, 1962 15:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9q 37°07′22″N 116°03′06″W / 37.1227°N 116.05168°W / 37.1227; -116.05168 (Roanoke) 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 154.53 m (507.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt Venting detected on site, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Wolverine October 12, 1962 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3av 37°02′56″N 116°02′00″W / 37.04876°N 116.0333°W / 37.04876; -116.0333 (Wolverine) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 73.43 m (240.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, less than 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Tioga October 18, 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9f 37°07′43″N 116°02′28″W / 37.1285°N 116.04111°W / 37.1285; -116.04111 (Tioga) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 59.44 m (195.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Bandicoot October 19, 1962 18:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bj 37°02′22″N 116°01′19″W / 37.03951°N 116.02185°W / 37.03951; -116.02185 (Bandicoot) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 241.3 m (792 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
12.5 kt Venting detected off site, 3 MCi (110 PBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Santee October 27, 1962 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10f 37°08′57″N 116°03′16″W / 37.14926°N 116.05437°W / 37.14926; -116.05437 (Santee) 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 319.43 m (1,048.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 4 kCi (150 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
St. Lawrence November 9, 1962 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2b 37°09′50″N 116°04′27″W / 37.16379°N 116.07419°W / 37.16379; -116.07419 (St. Lawrence) 1,309 m (4,295 ft) - 166.42 m (546.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 6 kCi (220 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Gundi November 15, 1962 16:30:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bm 37°02′30″N 116°01′29″W / 37.04172°N 116.02461°W / 37.04172; -116.02461 (Gundi) 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 241.44 m (792.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Anacostia November 27, 1962 18:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9i 37°07′22″N 116°01′48″W / 37.12275°N 116.02993°W / 37.12275; -116.02993 (Anacostia) 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 227.69 m (747.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
5.2 kt Venting detected on site, 6.8 kCi (250 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9] 3rd Plowshare test, device development, accidental release of radioactivity detected on site only. Designed to produce heavy isotopes and provide radioachemical analysis data for Coach.
Taunton December 4, 1962 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9aa 37°07′41″N 116°03′03″W / 37.12804°N 116.05088°W / 37.12804; -116.05088 (Taunton) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 227.84 m (747.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 4 kCi (150 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Madison December 12, 1962 17:25:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12g.01 37°10′20″N 116°12′10″W / 37.17214°N 116.20282°W / 37.17214; -116.20282 (Madison) 2,252 m (7,388 ft) - 245.36 m (805.0 ft) tunnel,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 20 kCi (740 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Numbat December 12, 1962 18:45:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bu 37°02′46″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04609°N 116.01637°W / 37.04609; -116.01637 (Numbat) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 231.95 m (761.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Manatee December 14, 1962 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9af 37°07′27″N 116°02′27″W / 37.12419°N 116.04083°W / 37.12419; -116.04083 (Manatee) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 58.52 m (192.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 1.8 kCi (67 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Casselman February 8, 1963 16:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10g 37°08′56″N 116°03′10″W / 37.14891°N 116.05265°W / 37.14891; -116.05265 (Casselman) 1,268 m (4,160 ft) - 302.97 m (994.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected, 6.3 kCi (230 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Hatchie February 8, 1963 16:00:01.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9e 37°07′33″N 116°02′23″W / 37.1259°N 116.03962°W / 37.1259; -116.03962 (Hatchie) 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 60.96 m (200.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Acushi February 8, 1963 18:30:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bg 37°02′46″N 116°01′18″W / 37.04608°N 116.0218°W / 37.04608; -116.0218 (Acushi) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 260.87 m (855.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt [1][6][8][9]
Ferret February 8, 1963 18:30:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bf 37°03′30″N 116°01′48″W / 37.05832°N 116.03°W / 37.05832; -116.03 (Ferret) 1,208 m (3,963 ft) - 325.69 m (1,068.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Chipmunk February 15, 1963 17:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ay 37°02′56″N 116°01′57″W / 37.049°N 116.03249°W / 37.049; -116.03249 (Chipmunk) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 59.38 m (194.8 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Kaweah February 21, 1963 19:47:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ab 37°07′13″N 116°02′48″W / 37.12026°N 116.04659°W / 37.12026; -116.04659 (Kaweah) 1,249 m (4,098 ft) - 227.08 m (745.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
3 kt Venting detected, 40 kCi (1,500 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9] 4th Plowshare test, device development. Designed to produce heavy isotopes and provide radioachemical analysis data for Coach.
Carmel February 21, 1963 19:47:08.63 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2h 37°09′17″N 116°04′51″W / 37.15477°N 116.08078°W / 37.15477; -116.08078 (Carmel) 1,311 m (4,301 ft) - 163.37 m (536.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 7.2 kCi (270 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Jerboa March 1, 1963 19:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3at 37°02′40″N 116°01′38″W / 37.04447°N 116.02736°W / 37.04447; -116.02736 (Jerboa) 1,197 m (3,927 ft) - 301.16 m (988.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Toyah March 15, 1963 16:22:53.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ac 37°07′33″N 116°02′44″W / 37.12583°N 116.04568°W / 37.12583; -116.04568 (Toyah) 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 130.76 m (429.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Gerbil March 29, 1963 15:49:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bp 37°02′30″N 116°01′09″W / 37.0417°N 116.01913°W / 37.0417; -116.01913 (Gerbil) 1,196 m (3,924 ft) - 279.5 m (917 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [1][6][8][9]
Ferret Prime April 5, 1963 17:52:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3by 37°02′14″N 116°01′29″W / 37.0373°N 116.02468°W / 37.0373; -116.02468 (Ferret Prime) 1,193 m (3,914 ft) - 241.55 m (792.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
7 kt [1][6][8][9]
Coypu April 10, 1963 16:01:30.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3af 37°02′56″N 116°01′52″W / 37.04879°N 116.03106°W / 37.04879; -116.03106 (Coypu) 1,201 m (3,940 ft) - 74.6 m (245 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Cumberland April 11, 1963 16:03:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2e 37°09′24″N 116°04′19″W / 37.15663°N 116.07183°W / 37.15663; -116.07183 (Cumberland) 1,299 m (4,262 ft) - 227.08 m (745.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected, 8.5 kCi (310 TBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Kootanai April 24, 1963 16:09:30.141 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9w 37°07′14″N 116°02′14″W / 37.12055°N 116.03715°W / 37.12055; -116.03715 (Kootanai) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 181.97 m (597.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 410 Ci (15,000 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Paisano April 24, 1963 16:09:30.142 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9w1(wi?) 37°07′14″N 116°02′13″W / 37.12048°N 116.03704°W / 37.12048; -116.03704 (Paisano) 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 56.69 m (186.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][8][9]
Gundi Prime May 9, 1963 18:19:00 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3db 37°02′58″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04933°N 116.01631°W / 37.04933; -116.01631 (Gundi Prime) 1,205 m (3,953 ft) - 271.73 m (891.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt [1][8][9]
Harkee May 17, 1963 14:55:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bv 37°02′38″N 116°00′59″W / 37.04388°N 116.01637°W / 37.04388; -116.01637 (Harkee) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 241.42 m (792.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Tejon May 17, 1963 14:55:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cg 37°02′54″N 116°01′59″W / 37.04831°N 116.0331°W / 37.04831; -116.0331 (Tejon) 1,199 m (3,934 ft) - 74.6 m (245 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][8][9]
Stones May 22, 1963 15:40:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ae 37°06′40″N 116°02′24″W / 37.11101°N 116.03993°W / 37.11101; -116.03993 (Stones) 1,257 m (4,124 ft) - 394.72 m (1,295.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, 5.8 kCi (210 TBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
Pleasant May 29, 1963 15:03:30.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ah 37°07′41″N 116°02′39″W / 37.12805°N 116.04429°W / 37.12805; -116.04429 (Pleasant) 1,253 m (4,111 ft) - 210.31 m (690.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected on site, 760 Ci (28,000 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9][10]
Yuba June 5, 1963 17:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12b.10 37°11′48″N 116°12′36″W / 37.19653°N 116.21004°W / 37.19653; -116.21004 (Yuba) 2,240 m (7,350 ft) - 242.41 m (795.3 ft) tunnel,
weapons development
3.1 kt Venting detected off site, 110 Ci (4,100 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Hutia June 6, 1963 14:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bc 37°02′42″N 116°02′14″W / 37.04498°N 116.03723°W / 37.04498; -116.03723 (Hutia) 1,198 m (3,930 ft) - 134.57 m (441.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt [1][6][8][9]
Apshapa June 6, 1963 16:58:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ai 37°07′29″N 116°02′27″W / 37.12459°N 116.04092°W / 37.12459; -116.04092 (Apshapa) 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 89.92 m (295.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 4 Ci (150 GBq) [1][3][5][8][9]
Mataco June 14, 1963 14:10:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bk 37°02′46″N 116°01′09″W / 37.0461°N 116.01909°W / 37.0461; -116.01909 (Mataco) 1,200 m (3,900 ft) - 195.56 m (641.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt [1][6][8][9]
Kennebec June 25, 1963 23:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2af 37°07′53″N 116°04′08″W / 37.13135°N 116.06893°W / 37.13135; -116.06893 (Kennebec) 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 226.16 m (742.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt Venting detected on site, 30 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][3][5][6][8][9]
  1. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  2. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. Historical time zone data obtained from the IANA time zone database.
  3. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  4. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  5. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  6. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  7. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  8. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  9. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research
  2. ^ "Time Zone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2 (PDF), National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved January 5, 2014
  4. ^ Sublette, Carey, Nuclear Weapons Archive, retrieved January 6, 2014
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1) (PDF), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2013, retrieved October 31, 2013
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co.
  7. ^ Hansen, Chuck (1995), The Swords of Armageddon, Vol. 8, Sunnyvale, CA: Chukelea Publications, ISBN 978-0-9791915-1-0
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (PDF) (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, December 1, 2000, archived from the original (PDF) on October 12, 2006, retrieved December 18, 2013
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, July 1, 1994, retrieved December 18, 2013
  10. ^ a b c Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved November 26, 2013