|Compiled by Oyneg Shabbos group|
One of the milk cans used to hide documents. From the Ringelblum "Oyneg Shabbos" Archive
The Ringelblum Archive is a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group known under code name Oyneg Shabbos (in Modern Israeli Hebrew: Oneg Shabbat, Hebrew: עונג שבת), led by Jewish historian Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum. The group, which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, was dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation. They worked as a team, collecting documents and soliciting testimonies and reports from dozens of volunteers of all ages. The materials submitted included essays, diaries, drawings, wall posters and other materials describing life in the Ghetto. The collection work started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943.
The name Oneg Shabbat means joy of the Sabbath in Hebrew and usually refers to a celebratory gathering held after Sabbath services, often with food, singing, study, discussion, and socializing. This name was selected because the group tended to meet on Saturdays to discuss the progress of their collection and documentation efforts. The form Oyneg Shabbos is Ashkenazic pronunciation.
The members of Oyneg Shabbos initially collected the material with the intention that they would write a book after the war about the horrors they had witnessed. As the pace of deportations increased, and it became clear that the destination was the Treblinka death camp and few Jewish Varsovians were likely to survive, Ringelblum had the archives stored in three milk cans and ten metal boxes, which were then buried in three places in the Ghetto. Two of the canisters, containing thousands of documents, were unearthed on 18 September 1946 and a further ten boxes on 1 December 1950. The third cache is rumored to be buried beneath what is now the Chinese Embassy in Warsaw but a search in 2005 failed to locate the missing archival material.
On January 19, 1942, an escaped inmate from the Chelmno extermination camp, Jacob Grojanowski, reached the Warsaw Ghetto, where he gave detailed information about the camp to the Oneg Shabbat group. His report, which became known as the Grojanowski Report, was smuggled out of the ghetto through the channels of the Polish underground, reached London and was published by June.
Nearly all of the members of the Oyneg Shabbos were murdered in the genocides. Emanuel Ringelblum escaped the ghetto, but continued to return to work on the archives. In 1944 Ringelblum and his family were discovered and were executed along with those who hid them.
In 1999, the Emanuel Ringelblum Archives were listed on the Memory of the World Register by UNESCO.
In 2007, historian Samuel Kassow published Who Will Write Our History? Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabbes Archive listing all accounts of the Oyneg Shabes archives that have been found. The Ringelblum Archive has been published in a book form in 2009 by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Hardcover), and is also available to researchers in digital format from the USHMM Archives and at the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
- Robert Moses Shapiro & Tadeusz Epsztein, eds. (2009). The Warsaw Ghetto Oyneg Shabes—Ringelblum Archive. Catalog and Guide. Introduction by Samuel D. Kassow. Indiana University Press in association with USHMMM and the Jewish Historical Institute, Warsaw. ISBN 978-0-253-35327-6 – via Academic Publications of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- Emanuel Ringelblum: The Creator of “Oneg Shabbat” Holocaust Research Project.
- Chelmno, Yad Vashem
- Gilbert, Martin (2002). The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-415-28145-4.
- UNESCO: Poland - Warsaw Ghetto Archives (Emanuel Ringelblum Archives)
- “Let The World Read And Know” - The Oneg Shabbat Archives - Online Exhibition from Yad Vashem
- Museum of Jewish Heritage
- Poetry In Hell: The complete collection of poems from the Ringelblum Archives in the original Yiddish with English translations.