Panama hake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Panama hake
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Gadiformes
Family: Merlucciidae
Genus: Merluccius
Species: M. angustimanus
Binomial name
Merluccius angustimanus
Garman, 1899

The Panama hake (Merluccius angustimanus), also known as the dwarf hake, is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found off the west coast of the Americas from Del Mar, California, to Ensenada de Tumaco, Colombia.[2]


The Panama hake is a relatively small species which does not normally grow to a greater length than 30 cm, although specimens have been described up to 40 cm. It has a relatively long head and long pectoral fins which reach at least to the origin of the anal fin. The anterior dorsal fin has a single spine and 9-12 fin rays, while the posterior dorsal fin has 36-40 rays. The caudal fin can be truncate or emarginated and it has 121-134 scales along the lateral line. It is a silvery colour above and whitish below.[3]


The Panama hake is an eastern Pacific species which is found from southern California and the Gulf of California south to Colombia, although its reported presence in many areas within this range needs verification.[1]

Habitat and biology[edit]

The Panama Hake is a demersal, bathypelagic species which occurs from the shallow continental shelf at 80m to the upper continental slope as deep as 500m, as well as in the ocean's midwaters and over sea mounts such as Uncle Sam Bank.[3] It has pelagic eggs and larvae and feeds on fish and invertebrates.[1] It spawns from April to June or even later. they reach sexual maturity when they attain a length of 18 to 19 cm.[3] They may live for up to seven year.[4]


M. angustimanus has little importance commercially because of its small size and low abundance,[3] although it fetches high prices when it occasionally shows up on the market, as it is sometimes exported on a local level.[5]


  1. ^ a b c Iwamoto, T.; Eschmeyer, W. & Alvarado, J. (2010). "Merluccius angustimanus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T183799A8178972. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  2. ^ FishBase species | genus = Merluccius | species = angustimanus | month = August | year = 2013
  3. ^ a b c d Daniel M. Cohen; Tadashi Inada; Tomio Iwamoto & Nadia Scialabba, eds. (1990). VOL.10 GADIFORM FISHES OF THE WORLD (Order Gadiformes) An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cods, Hakes, Grenadiers and other Gadiform Fishes Known to Date (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. pp. 331–332. ISBN 92-5-102890-7. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  4. ^ Domingo Lyons; J. Matallanas (2005). Hakes of the World (family Merlucciidae): An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Hake Species Known to Date Issue 2 of FAO species catalogue for fishery purposes, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Food and Agriculture Organisation. pp. 19–21. ISBN 925104984X.
  5. ^ Sumaila, U.R., A.D. Marsden, R. Watson y D. Pauly, 2007. "A global ex-vessel fish price database: construction and applications" J. Bioeconomics 9: 39-51.