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Panax quinquefolius
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Subfamily: Aralioideae
Genus: Panax

See text

The Panax (ginseng) genus belongs to the Araliaceae[1] (ivy) family. Panax species are characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin. Panax is one of approximately 60 plant genera with a classical disjunct east Asian and east North American distribution.[2] Furthermore, this disjunct distribution is asymmetric as only two of the ~18 species in genus are native to North America.


American ginseng at Monk Garden in Wisconsin .

The name Panax, meaning "all-healing" in Greek, shares the same origin as "panacea" and was used for this genus because Carl Linnaeus was aware of its wide use in Chinese medicine.[citation needed]

Panax species[edit]

Genus Panax[3]

Subgenus Panax
Section Panax
Series Notoginseng
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen (known as san qi, tian qi or tien chi)
Series Panax
Panax arunachalensis Taram, A.P.Das & Tag[4][5]
Panax assamicus (Assam Ginseng) [6]
Panax bipinnatifidus Seem. [7]
var. angustifolius (Burkill) J.Wen
Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. (Asian ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean ginseng, Asiatic ginseng, Oriental ginseng)[8]
Panax japonicus (T.Nees) C.A.Mey. (Japanese ginseng)[9][10][11]
Panax quinquefolius L. (American ginseng)
Panax sokpayensis Shiva K.Sharma & Pandit [12]
Panax vietnamensis Ha & Grushv.
Panax wangianus S.C.Sun [13]
Panax zingiberensis C.Y.Wu & Feng
Section Pseudoginseng
Panax pseudoginseng Wall.
Panax stipuleanatus H.T.Tsai & K.M.Feng [14][15]
Subgenus Trifolius
Panax trifolius L.


  • Panax ginseng × Panax quinquifolius[16]
  • Panax japonicus f. typicum × Panax quinquifolius[17]


  1. ^ "Ivy Family - Araliaceae - Common names". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  2. ^ Zuo, Yun-Juan; Wen, Jun; Ma, Jin-Shuang; Zhou, Shi-Liang (2015). "Evolutionary radiation of the Panax bipinnatifidus species complex (Araliaceae) in the Sino-Himalayan region of eastern Asia as inferred from AFLP analysis". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 53 (3): 210–220. doi:10.1111/jse.12119. ISSN 1759-6831. S2CID 82972879.
  3. ^ "'Panax search' from the Plant List". The Plant List, v. 1.1. 2013. Retrieved June 20, 2017.
  4. ^ "Panax arunachalensis Taram, A.P.Das & Tag". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2023-05-06.
  5. ^ Taram, Momang; Das, A.P. & Tag, Hui (2018). "A new species of Panax L. (Araliaceae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India". Pleione. pp. 315–321. doi:10.26679/Pleione.12.2.2018.315-3211. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ "Panax Assamicus".
  7. ^ "Panax bipinnatifidus Seem. — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  8. ^ "Asian Ginseng". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH). September 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
  9. ^ Rai, Amit; Yamazaki, Mami; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michimi; Kojoma, Mareshige; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Saito, Kazuki (2016). "RNA-seq Transcriptome Analysis of Panax japonicus, and Its Comparison with Other Panax Species to Identify Potential Genes Involved in the Saponins Biosynthesis". Frontiers in Plant Science. 7: 481. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00481. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 4828455. PMID 27148308.
  10. ^ "Japanese ginseng". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  11. ^ Plantae Medicinales oder Sammlung offizineller Pflanzen.
  12. ^ Sharma, Shiva Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj Krishan (2009). "A New Species of Panax L. (Araliaceae) from Sikkim Himalaya, India". Systematic Botany. 34 (2): 434–438. doi:10.1600/036364409788606235. JSTOR 40211904. S2CID 198131033.
  13. ^ "Panax wangianus S.C.Sun — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  14. ^ "Panax stipuleanatus H.T.Tsai & K.M.Feng — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  15. ^ Trieu, Le Ngoc; Mien, Nguyen Tuong; Van Tien, Tran; Van Ket, Nguyen; Van Duy, Nong (16 March 2016). "Genetic diversity of Tsai in North Vietnam detected by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 30 (3): 506–511. doi:10.1080/13102818.2016.1157448.
  16. ^ Kim, Jong Youn; Adhikari, Prakash Babu; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Dong Hwi; Chang Kim, Young; Han, Jung Yeon; Kondeti, Subramanyam; Choi, Yong Eui (2019). "High frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of interspecific ginseng hybrid between Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius". Journal of Ginseng Research. 43 (1): 38–48. doi:10.1016/j.jgr.2017.08.002. PMC 6323240. PMID 30662292.
  17. ^ Kuriyama, H. (1950). "The cytological studies on the interspecific hybrid of Panax". Japanese Journal of Crop Science. 19 (1–2): 209–213. doi:10.1626/jcs.19.209.

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