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Sound change and alternation

Paragoge (/ˌpærəˈɡi/; from Greek: παραγωγή; adj. paragogic /ˌpærəˈɡɒɪk/), is the addition of a sound to the end of a word. Often, this is due to nativization. It is a type of epenthesis, most commonly vocalic epenthesis.

The paragoge is particularly common in the Brazilian variant of the Portuguese language, not only in loanwords but generally in word derivation. It is also present in most accents of Brazilians when speaking foreign languages, such as English.[1]

Diachronic paragoge[edit]

Some languages have undergone paragoge as a sound change, so that modern forms are longer than the historical forms they are derived from. Italian sono 'I am' from Latin sum is an example. Sometimes, as here, the paragogic vowel is an echo vowel.

Paragoge in loanwords[edit]

Some languages add a sound to the end of a loanword when it would otherwise end in a forbidden sound. Similarly, some languages add a sound to the end of a loanword in order to make it declinable.




  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.