|Sound change and alternation|
Paragoge (//; from Greek: παραγωγή; adj. paragogic //), is the addition of a sound to the end of a word. Often, this is due to nativization. It is a type of epenthesis, most commonly vocalic epenthesis.
The paragoge is particularly common in the Brazilian variant of the Portuguese language, not only in loanwords but generally in word derivation. It is also present in most accents of Brazilians when speaking foreign languages, such as English.
Some languages have undergone paragoge as a sound change, so that modern forms are longer than the historical forms they are derived from. Italian sono 'I am' from Latin sum is an example. Sometimes, as here, the paragogic vowel is an echo vowel.
Paragoge in loanwords
- English computer → Latvian kompjūters;
- English rack → Finnish räkki;
- English gal → Japanese ギャル (gyaru);
- Ottoman Turkish راقى (rakı) > South Slavic rakia.
- Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.
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