Personal seat license
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A personal seat license, or PSL, is a paid license that entitles the holder to the right to buy season tickets for a certain seat in a stadium. This holder can sell the seat license to someone else if they no longer wish to purchase season tickets. However, if the seat license holder chooses not to sell the seat licenses and does not renew the season tickets, the holder forfeits the license back to the team. Most seat licenses are valid for as long as the team plays in the current venue.
Seat licenses have been given various names. The most common term in North America is personal seat license and in Europe is debenture. The primary reason sporting venues offer PSLs is that the proceeds are used to help pay the debt incurred during the construction of the stadium or arena. Opponents of PSLs see this as another way to extract money from the sports fans.
Origin of seat licenses
There are varying accounts as to the origin of the personal seat license.
According to one account, the first personal seat license plan was developed in 1986 at Stanford University by legendary tennis coach Dick Gould. Seeking financing for a new tennis stadium, Gould came up with the idea of selling the rights to seats, a licensing plan under which purchaser's name is engraved in the seat, and the purchaser owns the right to have first choice for tickets for any event held in the stadium.
According to a second account, the permanent seat license was invented by a Columbus, Ohio architect, Rick Ohanian, in January 1987. Ohanian described his plan in a Letter to The Editor of the Columbus Dispatch, published on March 2, 1987, entitled "Ticketbond is Answer to Financing Proposed Facility".
According to a third account, the permanent seat license was invented by Charlotte sports marketing agent Max Muhleman, in 1993. Muhleman is credited as the founder of the first PSLs at Charlotte's then Carolinas Stadium.
Others cite similar programs that were in existence among many college fund raising activities prior to 1987. However, the early programs were tax-deductible donations to a scholarship fund, in which case the main "quid-pro-quo" was between the donation and the resultant deduction, not between the donation and the actual seating rights.
Sports teams and organizations employing seat licenses
Here is a list of some of the teams that have seat licenses:
NFL seat licenses
- Atlanta Falcons PSL (effective at new stadium only - set to open 2017)
- Baltimore Ravens PSL
- Carolina Panthers PSL
- Chicago Bears PSL
- Cincinnati Bengals COA (Charter Ownership Agreements)
- Cleveland Browns PSL
- Dallas Cowboys SL (Seat Licenses) (Effective at AT&T Stadium only.)
- Houston Texans PSL
- Minnesota Vikings PSL (U.S. Bank Stadium only - set to open 2016)
- New York Giants PSL (Effective at MetLife Stadium only. Buying Giants PSL does not give ticket rights for Jets.)
- New York Jets PSL (Effective at MetLife Stadium only. Policies differ from the Giants. Buying Jets PSL does not give ticket rights for Giants.)
- Philadelphia Eagles SBL (Stadium Builder Licenses)
- Pittsburgh Steelers SL
- San Francisco 49ers SBL (Stadium Builder Licenses)
- Seattle Seahawks CSL (Charter Seat Licenses)
- Los Angeles Rams PSL (To be implemented when the new stadium opens)
- Tennessee Titans PSL
MLB Seat Licenses
- Arizona Diamondbacks Legacy Club Seat Licenses
- Minnesota Twins Legends Club Memberships (effective in Target Field only)
- San Diego Padres Founders Club Memberships
- San Francisco Giants CSL Charter Seat Licenses
- St. Louis Cardinals Ballpark Founders Club Seat Licenses
Car Racing Seat Licenses
NHL Seat Licenses
NBA Seat Licenses
- Gold Coast Titans PSR (Personal Seat Right)
- Barker, Jeff. "Owning a Ravens seat can pay off big time," The Baltimore Sun, Thursday, June 25, 2009.
- "Dick Gould profile". Stanford University. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
- Glenn Dickey (2000-04-07). "Gould Serves Up New Ideas". San Francisco Chronicle.
- Hill, Jemele. "Personal seat licenses, rising ticket prices spell doom," ESPN Page 2, Monday, August 4, 2008.
- "Price tag for Rams' Inglewood stadium could reach $2.66 billion". The Orange County Register. Retrieved 2016-01-18.