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Peruvian Hairless Dog

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Peruvian Inca Orchid
Other namesPerro Sin Pelo de Perú
Peruvian viringo
Inca Hairless Dog
Peruvian Hairless Dog
Kennel club standards
Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard
Dog (domestic dog)

The Peruvian Hairless Dog,[1] Peruvian viringo,[2] Peruvian Inca Orchid, naked dog, or Chimú dog is one of several breeds of hairless dog. Peruvian Hairless dogs were also called “perros Chinos” which translates directly to chinese dogs but was thought to have the meaning of “house-dogs” instead, as ”China” is a Quechua (indigenous peruvian) word for woman.[3] The breed comes in a variety of sizes and colors, including chocolate-brown, elephant-grey, and copper. They are sensitive to extreme temperatures and require special care due to their lack of fur, including protection from the sun and cold. Historically, they have been associated with the Inca Empire and are officially recognized as part of Peru's cultural heritage.[4][5]


A perfect Peruvian Hairless Dog pedigree. Trujillo, Peru.
Face of a typical Peruvian Hairless Dog.
Female Peruvian Hairless Dog sitting.

According to the FCI breed standard, the most important aspect of its appearance is its hairlessness. Hairless dogs are often used in research for testing of various conditions such as dermatitis and other immune-related conditions.[6] The dog may have short hair on top of its head, on its feet, and on the tip of its tail. In Peru, breeders tend to prefer completely hairless dogs. The color of skin can be chocolate-brown, elephant-grey, copper, or mottled. They can be totally one color or one color with tongue pink spots. Albinism is not accepted. The eye color is linked to the skin color. It is always brown, but dogs with light colors can have clearer eyes than darker-skinned dogs.[7]

Peruvian Hairless Dogs come in three sizes:[8]

  • Small 25 – 40 cm (10 – 16 inches)
  • Medium 40 – 50 cm (16 – 20 inches)
  • Large 50 – 65 cm (20 – 26 inches)

Weight is also varied according to size :

  • Small 4 – 8 kg (9 – 18 lbs)
  • Medium 8 – 12 kg (18 – 26 lbs)
  • Large 12 – 25 kg (26 – 55 lbs)

The dogs should be slim and elegant, with the impression of force and harmony, without being coarse.[7]

The ears should be candle-flame shaped and erect with the possibility to lay flat.[7]

Proportions of height (at withers) to length (withers to base of tail) are 1:1.[7]

Genetics and health[edit]

Peruvian Hairless Dog, US.

The gene that causes hairlessness also results in the breed often having fewer teeth than other breeds, mostly lacking molars and premolars.[9]

The hairlessness trait is a dominant double lethal mutation [neologism?], which means that homozygotic hairlessness does not exist. Homozygous embryos, those with two copies of the gene, do not develop in the womb. This results in an average birthrate of 2:1, hairless:coated.[10][verification needed]



Huacos of ancient Peruvian Hairless Dogs, Brüning Museum.

The Peruvian Hairless Dog is often perceived to be an Incan dog because it is known to have been kept during the Inca Empire (the Spaniards classified them as one of the six different breeds of dogs in the empire), they were also kept as pets in pre-Inca cultures from the Peruvian northern coastal zone. Ceramic hairless dogs from the Chimú, Moche, and Vicus culture are well known. Depictions of Peruvian hairless dogs appear around A.D. 750 on Moche ceramic vessels and continue in later Andean ceramic traditions.[11][page needed]

Peruvian Hairless Dogs are now a symbol of Peru and part of its national heritage, celebrated in art and literature.[12] The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) accepted the breed and adopted an official breed standard.[citation needed]

Before that time, in the United States, some enthusiasts created another type of Peruvian hairless dog, the Peruvian Inca Orchid. The Peruvian Inca Orchid is recognized by the AKC and all recognized dogs are descendants of 13 dogs brought from Peru in the early 20th century.[citation needed]

The UKC also recognized the breed in recent years.[citation needed]

DNA evidence[edit]

In 2018, an analysis of DNA from the entire cell nucleus indicated that dogs entered North America from Siberia 4,500 years after humans did, were isolated for the next 9,000 years, and after contact with Europeans these no longer exist because they were replaced by Eurasian dogs. The pre-contact dogs exhibit a unique genetic signature that is now gone.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "PERRO PERUANO SIN PELO (Canis familiaris)". www.peruecologico.com.pe. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
  2. ^ "FCI Breeds Nomenclature". www.fci.be. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
  3. ^ Cook, O. F. (April 1919). Published: 01 April 1919 "DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS IN PERU Get". Journal of Heredity. 10 (4): 176-181. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a101913. {{cite journal}}: Check |url= value (help)
  4. ^ ""Designan representante del Ministerio ante el Comité Nacional de Protección del "perro sin pelo del Perú". Resolución ministerial n.º 076-2013-MC"" (PDF). Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas del Perú (Lima). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-15.
  5. ^ "Masters of the pyramid: The dogs reclaiming their heritage". BBC News. 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  6. ^ Kimura, Ohshima (January 1993). "The inheritance and breeding results of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs". Laboratory Animals. 27 (1): 55–58. doi:10.1258/002367793781082403. PMID 8437436.
  7. ^ a b c d "Perro sin pelo du Peru" (PDF). Federation Cynologique Internationale. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  8. ^ "Peruvian Inca Orchid - Dog Breed Information". American Kennel Club. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  9. ^ Kupczik, Kornelius; Cagan, Alexander; Brauer, Silke; Fischer, Martin S. (2017-07-14). "The dental phenotype of hairless dogs with FOXI3 haploinsufficiency". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 5459. Bibcode:2017NatSR...7.5459K. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05764-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5511229. PMID 28710361.
  10. ^ Hans Räber "Enzyklopädie der Rassehunde" T.I
  11. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York:Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  12. ^ "Masters of the pyramid: The dogs reclaiming their heritage". BBC News. 2019-09-02. Retrieved 2023-09-29.
  13. ^ Ní Leathlobhair, Máire; Perri, Angela R; Irving-Pease, Evan K; Witt, Kelsey E; Linderholm, Anna; Haile, James; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Ameen, Carly; Blick, Jeffrey; Boyko, Adam R; Brace, Selina; Cortes, Yahaira Nunes; Crockford, Susan J; Devault, Alison; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A; Eldridge, Morley; Enk, Jacob; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Gori, Kevin; Grimes, Vaughan; Guiry, Eric; Hansen, Anders J; Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Johnson, John; Kitchen, Andrew; Kasparov, Aleksei K; Kwon, Young-Mi; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Lope, Carlos Peraza; et al. (2018). "The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas". Science. 361 (6397): 81–85. Bibcode:2018Sci...361...81N. doi:10.1126/science.aao4776. PMC 7116273. PMID 29976825.

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