Peter Henlein (also spelled Henle or Hele) (1485 - August 1542), a locksmith and clockmaker of Nuremberg, Germany, is often considered the inventor of the watch. He was one of the first craftsmen to make small ornamental taschenuhr, portable clocks which were often worn as pendants or attached to clothing, regarded as the first watches. Many sources also erroneously credit him as the inventor of the mainspring.
Little is known about Henlein's life. He apparently apprenticed in his youth as a locksmith. At the time, locksmiths were among the few craftsmen with the skills and tools to enter the new field of clockmaking, and Henlein also became a clockmaker. On September 7, 1504, he was involved in a brawl in which a fellow locksmith, George Glaser, was killed. He sought asylum at a local Franciscan monastery, where he stayed for four years, until 1508. In 1509 he became a master in the city's locksmith guild. He became known as a maker of small portable ornamental spring-powered brass clocks, very rare and expensive, which were fashionable among the nobility of the time. These were sometimes worn as pendants or attached to clothing, and so may be considered the first watches, although at over 3 inches long they were bigger than the first true pocketwatches which appeared about a century later, and were not able to fit in pockets. He is mentioned in the city's records as the supplier of small spring-driven clocks, which were given as gifts to important people. He was supposedly the first craftsman to build clockworks into "Bisamkopfe", small containers fashioned from precious metals for fragrances or disinfectants. For example a Nuremberg paper records that in 1524 he was paid 15 florins for a gilt musk-ball watch. He also built a tower clock for Lichtenau castle in 1541, and was known as a maker of scientific instruments.
Peter Hele, still a young man, fashions works which even the most learned mathematicians admire. He shapes many-wheeled clocks out of small bits of iron, which run and chime the hours without weights for forty hours, whether carried at the breast or in a handbag
His reputation as the inventor of the watch came after his rise to popular consciousness in the 19th century, through a novel by Karl Spindler, Der Nürnberger Sophokles. This was made into a 1939 film, and his likeness appeared on a 1942 German stamp. However, although he was a notable and talented clockmaker, there were other clockmakers making small clocks at the time, and no contemporary source from his time credits him with inventing anything. The mainspring which made portable clocks possible, often attributed to him, actually appeared in the early 15th century, almost a century before his work. Perhaps the most that was said of him by his peers comes from Johann Neudorfer in 1547 shortly after his death:
This . . . Henlein was very nearly the first of those who invented how to put small clocks into little boxes.
- Jürgen Abeler In Sachen Peter Henlein. Wuppertaler Uhrenmuseum, Wuppertal 1980
- Maren Winter Der Stundensammler. Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, München 2004 (Roman), ISBN 3-453-40146-8,1510: Peter Henlein invents the pocket watch
- Thomas Eser Die Henlein-Ausstellung im Germanischen Nationalmuseum - Rueckblick, Ausblick, neue Funde. A scholarly Essay in: Jahresschrift 2015 - Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chronometrie -Band 54, Seite 23-44. Published by Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Chronometrie, Nuernberg, ISBN 978-3-923422-23-4
- Milham, Willis I. (1945). Time and Timekeepers. New York: MacMillan. p. 121. ISBN 0-7808-0008-7.
- Dohrn-van Rossum, Gerhard; Thomas Dunlap (1996). History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. USA: Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-226-15510-2.
- Cipolla, Carlo M. (2004). Clocks and Culture, 1300 to 1700. W.W. Norton & Co. p. 61. ISBN 0-393-32443-5., p.31
- Carlisle, Rodney P. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries. USA: John Wiley & Sons. p. 143. ISBN 0471244104.
- Levy, Joel (2003). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. p. 101. ISBN 155297622X.
- "Clock". The New Encyclopaedia Britannica 4. Univ. of Chicago. 1974. p. 747. ISBN 0-85229-290-2.
- Anzovin, Steve; Podell, Janet (2000). Famous First Facts: A record of first happenings, discoveries, and inventions in world history. H.W. Wilson. ISBN 0-8242-0958-3., p.440
- Farr, James Richard (2000). Artisans in Europe, 1300-1914. London: Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 052142934X.
- Milham, 1945, p.135
- Campbell, Gordon (2006). The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Vol. 1. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 250–251. ISBN 0195189485.
- Usher, Abbot Payson (1988). A History of Mechanical Inventions. Courier Dover. p. 305. ISBN 0-486-25593-X.
- White, Lynn Jr. (1966). Medieval Technology and Social Change. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-19-500266-0.