Phyllopteryx is a genus of small fishes, commonly called seadragons, in the family Syngnathidae that are found along the western and southern coasts of Australia. Since the 19th century, the weedy or common seadragon was the only known species, until the discovery of the ruby seadragon in 2015. They are closely related to other members of the Syngnathidae such as the leafy seadragon, pipefish and seahorses, which all exhibit male pregnancy.
Two species are recognised:
- Common seadragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus Lacepède, 1804)
- Ruby seadragon (Phyllopteryx dewysea Stiller, Wilson, & Rouse, 2015)
- "Rare Ruby Seadragon uncovered in Western Australia". Western Australian Museum. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Geggel, Laura (18 February 2015). "Ruby-Red Sea Dragon Is Brand-New Species". livescience.com. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Stiller, Josefin; Wilson, Nerida G.; Rouse, Greg W. (18 February 2015). "A spectacular new species of seadragon (Syngnathidae)". Royal Society Open Science. The Royal Society. 2 (2). doi:10.1098/rsos.140458. Retrieved 18 February 2015.