List of Plasmodium species infecting birds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Species in six subgenera of Plasmodium infect birds - Bennettinia, Giovannolaia, Haemamoeba, Huffia, Novyella and Papernaia.[1] Giovannolaia appears to be a polyphytic group and may be sudivided in the future.[2]

Plasmodium accipiteris
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Phylum: Apicomplexa
Class: Aconoidasida
Order: Haemosporida
Family: Plasmodiidae
Genus: Plasmodium

Plasmodium accipiteris
Plasmodium alaudae
Plasmodium alloelongatum
Plasmodium anasum
Plasmodium ashfordi
Plasmodium bambusicolai
Plasmodium beaucournui
Plasmodium bertii
Plasmodium bioccai
Plasmodium bigueti
Plasmodium biziurae
Plasmodium buteonis
Plasmodium caloti
Plasmodium cathemerium
Plasmodium circumflexum
Plasmodium coggeshalli
Plasmodium columbae
Plasmodium coluzzii
Plasmodium corradettii
Plasmodium coturnix
Plasmodium dherteae
Plasmodium dissanaikei
Plasmodium dorsti
Plasmodium durae
Plasmodium elongatum
Plasmodium fallax
Plasmodium formosanum
Plasmodium forresteri
Plasmodium gabaldoni
Plasmodium gallinacium
Plasmodium garnhami
Plasmodium ghadiriani
Plasmodium ginsburgi
Plasmodium giovannolai
Plasmodium globularis
Plasmodium golvani
Plasmodium griffithsi
Plasmodium gundersi
Plasmodium guangdong
Plasmodium hegneri
Plasmodium hermani
Plasmodium hexamerium
Plasmodium huffi
Plasmodium jeanriouxi
Plasmodium jiangi
Plasmodium juxtanucleare
Plasmodium kempi
Plasmodium lenoblei
Plasmodium lophurae
Plasmodium lutzi
Plasmodium matutinum
Plasmodium megaglobularis
Plasmodium merulae
Plasmodium mohammedi
Plasmodium nucleophilum
Plasmodium pachysomum
Plasmodium papernai
Plasmodium paranucleophilum
Plasmodium parvulum
Plasmodium pediocetti
Plasmodium paddae
Plasmodium pfefferi
Plasmodium pinotti
Plasmodium polare
Plasmodium polymorphum
Plasmodium relictum
Plasmodium reniai
Plasmodium rouxi
Plasmodium sergentorum
Plasmodium snounoui
Plasmodium stellatum
Plasmodium tenue
Plasmodium tejerai
Plasmodium tumbayaensis
Plasmodium valkiunasi
Plasmodium vaughani

Avian host records[edit]

Subspecies of avian malaria[edit]

  • P. nucleophilum has at least one subspecies - P. nucleophilum toucani
  • P. relictum has been divided into subspecies: P. relictum capistranoae, P. relicturn matutinum, P. relictum quentini and P. relictum relictum.


  • P. durae is related to P. asanum, P. circumflexum, P. fallax, P. formosanum, P. gabaldoni, P. hegneri, P. lophrae, P. lophrae, P. pediocetti, P. pinotti, and P. polare.
  • P. gallinacium is related to P. griffithsi
  • P. relictum is related to P. cathemerium, P. giovannolai and P. matutinum. P. relictum may be difficult to distinguish from P. giovannolai on either morphological grounds or on the basis of host species.
  • P. hexamerium is related to P. vaughni.
  • P. ashfordi is related to P. vaughni.

Vectors of avian malaria[edit]


Sporogeny of P. circumflexum but not transmission has been recorded in Mansonia perturbans.

Avian malaria notes[edit]

  • P. relictum is known to infect over 70 bird families and 359 wild bird species so the record here should be regarded as incomplete. Additional host species can be found under the link Plasmodium relictum. It is likely that this species has been responsible for more bird extinctions than any other protist.
  • P. vaughani is the second commonest species of avian malaria parasites after P. relictum.
  • P. inconstans, P. irae, P. praecox, P. subpraecox and P. wasielewski have been re classified as P. relictum. P. subpraecox was described by Grassi and Feletti in 1892. P. wasielewski was described by Brumpt in 1909.
  • P. elongatum infects 21 bird families and 59 species of bird. Additional host species are given under the link Plasmodium elongatum.
  • P. dominicana is species known only from fossil amber.[15] It is thought to have been a species infecting birds. It has been placed in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus.
  • The taxonomic status of P. corradettii (Laird, 1998) is currently regarded as dubious and may be revised.
  • P. huffi may be the same species as P. nucleophilum toucani.
  • P. oti is now regarded as the same species as P. hexamerium.
  • There are currently 13 species recognised in the subgenus Novyella all of which are listed here.

A number of additional species have been described in birds - P. centropi, P. chloropsidis, P. gallinuae, P. herodialis, P. heroni, P. mornony, P. pericorcoti and P. ploceii - but the suggested speciation was based at least in part on the idea - 'one host - one species'. It has not been possible to reconcile the descriptions with any of the currently recognised species, and these are not currently regarded as valid species. As further investigations are made into this genus these species may be resurrected.

A species P. japonicum has been reported[16] but this appears to be the only report of this species and should therefore be regarded of dubious validity.


  1. ^ Wiersch, S.C.; Maier, W.A.; Kampen, H. (2005). "Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) cathemerium gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis of malaria parasites". Parasitol. Res. 96 (2): 90–94. PMID 15812672. doi:10.1007/s00436-005-1324-8. 
  2. ^ Martinsen E.S.,Waite J.L.,Schall J.J. Morphologically defined subgenera of Plasmodium from avian hosts: test of monophyly by phylogenetic analysis of two mitochondrial genes (2006) Parasitol. 1-8
  3. ^ Valkiūnas G., Zehtindjiev P., Hellgren O., Ilieva M., Iezhova T.A., Bensch S. (2007) Linkage between mitochondrial cytochrome b lineages and morphospecies of two avian malaria parasites, with a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) ashfordi sp. nov. Parasitol. Res.
  4. ^ Landau I, Chabaud AG, Bertani S, and Snounou G. (2003) Parassitologia. 45(3-4):119-123 Taxonomic status and re-description of Plasmodium relictum (Grassi et Feletti, 1891), Plasmodium maior Raffaele, 1931, and description of P. bigueti n. sp. in sparrows.
  5. ^ Kirkpatrick CE, Lauer DM. (1985) Hematozoa of raptors from southern New Jersey and adjacent areas. J Wildl. Dis. 21(1):1-6.
  6. ^ Earle RA, Horak IG, Huchzermeyer FW, Bennett GF, Braack LE, Penzhorn BL. (1991) The prevalence of blood parasites in helmeted guineafowls, Numida meleagris, in the Kruger National Park. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 58(3):145-147.
  7. ^ Valkiūnas, G.; Zehtindjiev, P.; Dimitrov, D.; Krizanauskiene, A.; Iezhova, T.A.; Bensch, S. (2008). "Polymerase chain reaction-based identification of Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, with remarks on species identity of haemosporidian lineages deposited in GenBank". Parasitol. Res. 102 (6): 1185–1193. PMID 18270739. doi:10.1007/s00436-008-0892-9. 
  8. ^ a b Baillie, SM; Brunton, DH (2011). "Diversity, distribution and biogeographical origins of Plasmodium parasites from the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura)". Parasitology. 9: 1–9. 
  9. ^ Chavatte, J.M.; Chiron, F.; Chabaud, A.; Landau, I. (2007). "Fidélisation du couple hôte-vecteur facteur probable de spéciation : 14 espèces de Plasmodium de la Pie". Parasite. 14 (1): 21–37. ISSN 1252-607X. PMID 17432055. doi:10.1051/parasite/2007141021.  open access publication – free to read
  10. ^ Murata, K.; Nii, R.; Sasaki, E.; Ishikawa, S.; Sato, Y.; Sawabe, K.; Tsuda, Y.; Matsumoto, R.; Suda, A.; Ueda, M. (2008). "Plasmodium (Bennettinia) juxtanucleare infection in a captive white eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon) at a Japanese zoo". J. Vet. Med. Sci. 70 (2): 203–205. doi:10.1292/jvms.70.203. 
  11. ^ Christensen B.M., Barnes H.J., Rowley W.A. (1983) Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa. J. Wildl. Dis. 19(3):204-213
  12. ^ Manwell R.D. (1968) Plasmodium octamerium n. sp., an avian malaria parasite from the pintail whydah bird Vidua macroura. J. Protozool. 15(4):680-685
  13. ^ Valkiunas, G.; Iezhova, T.A. (2001). "A comparison of the blood parasites in three subspecies of the yellow wagtail Motacilla flava". J. Parasitol. 87 (4): 930–934. doi:10.2307/3285160. 
  14. ^ Zehtindjiev P, Križanauskienė A, Bensch S, Palinauskas V, Asghar M, Dimitrov D, Scebba S, Valkiunas G (2012) A new morphologically distinct avian malaria parasite that fails detection by established PCR-based protocols for amplification of the cytochrome B gene. J Parasitol
  15. ^ Poinar G. (2005) Plasmodium dominicana n. sp. (Plasmodiidae: Haemospororida) from Tertiary Dominican amber. Systematic Parasitol. 61 (1) 47-52
  16. ^ Manwell R.D. (1966) Plasmodium japonicum, P. juxtanucleare and P. nucleophilum in the Far East. J. Protozool. 13(1):8-11.