Plum-headed Parakeet

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Plum-headed Parakeet
Male Plum-headed Parakeet
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Superfamily: Psittacoidea
Family: Psittaculidae
Subfamily: Psittaculinae
Tribe: Psittaculini
Genus: Psittacula
Species: P. cyanocephala
Binomial name
Psittacula cyanocephala
(Linnaeus, 1766)

The Plum-headed Parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) is a parakeet endemic to the Indian Subcontinent. Along with Psittacula roseata of the Himalayas it was sometimes known by the name of Blossom-headed Parakeet which is now used to refer only to Psittacula roseata. Plum-headed Parakeets are found in flocks, the males having a pinkish purple head and the females, a grey head. They fly swiftly with twists and turns accompanied by their distinctive calls.

Description[edit]

Female feeding in Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary

The Plum-headed Parakeet is a mainly green parrot, 33 cm long with a tail up to 22 cm. The male has a red head which shades to purple-blue on the back of the crown, nape and cheeks while the female has blueish-gray head. There is a narrow black neck collar with verdigris below on the nape and a black chin stripe that extends from the lower mandible. There is a red shoulder patch and the rump and tail are bluish-green, the latter tipped white. The upper mandible is orangish-yellow, and the lower mandible is dark. The female has a dull bluish grey head and lacks the black and verdigris collar which is replaced by yellow. The upper-mandible is corn-yellow and there is no black chin stripe or red shoulder patch. Immature birds have a green head and both mandibles are yellowish. The dark head is acquired after a year.[2][3][4] The delicate bluish red appearance resembling the bloom of a peach is produced by a combination of blue from the optical effects produced by the rami of the feather and a red pigment in the barbules.[5]

Some authors have considered the species to have two subspecies, the nominate from peninsular India (type locality restricted to Gingee[6]) and the population from the foothills of the Himalayas as bengalensis on the basis of the colour of the head in the male which is more red and less blue.[3] Newer works consider the species to be monotypic.[2]

The different head colour and the white tip to the tail distinguish this species from the similar Blossom-headed Parakeet (Psittacula roseata). The shoulder patch is maroon coloured and the shorter tail is tipped yellow in P. roseata.[2]

A supposed species of parakeet, the so-called Intermediate Parakeet Psittacula intermedia is thought to be a hybrid of this and the Slaty-headed Parakeet (Psittacula himalayana).[7]

Habitat and distribution[edit]

A small flock with a pair courtship feeding (Western Ghats, Kerala)

The Plum-headed Parakeet is a bird of forest and open woodland. They are found from the foothills of the Himalayas south to Sri Lanka. They are not found in the dry regions of western India.[3] They are sometimes kept as pets and escaped birds have been noted in New York,[8] Florida[9] and in some places in the Middle East.[10]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Calls

The Plum-headed Parakeet is a gregarious and noisy species with range of raucous calls. The usual flight and contact call is tuink? repeated now and then. The flight is swift and the bird often twists and turns rapidly. It makes local movements, driven mainly by the availability of the fruit and blossoms which make up its diet. They feed on grains, fruits, the fleshy petals of flowers (Salmalia, Butea) and sometimes raid agricultural fields and orchards. The breeding season in India is mainly from December to April and July to August in Sri Lanka. Courtship includes bill rubbing and courtship feeding.[11] It nests in holes, chiselled out by the pair, in tree trunks, and lays 4–6 white eggs. The female appears to be solely responsible for incubation and feeding. They roost communally. In captivity it can learn to mimic beeps and short whistling tunes but not human speech.[3]

Neoaulobia psittaculae, a quill mite, has been described from the species.[12] A species of Haemoproteus, H. handai, has been described from blood samples from the Plum-headed Parakeet.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Psittacula cyanocephala". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Rasmussen PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Washington DC and Barcelona: Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. pp. 219–220. 
  3. ^ a b c d Ali, S & SD Ripley. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 3 (2 ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–181. 
  4. ^ Blanford WT (1895). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Birds. Volume 3. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 251–252. 
  5. ^ Chandler, Asa C. (1916). "A study of the structure of feathers, with reference to their taxonomic significance". University of California Publications in Zoology 13 (1): 243–446 [278]. 
  6. ^ Whistler, Hugh & NB Kinnear (1935). "The Vernay Scientific Survey of the Eastern Ghats (Ornithological Section)". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37 (4): 751–763. 
  7. ^ Rasmussen, P. C. & N. J. Collar (1999). "On the hybrid status of Rothschilds's Parakeet Psittacula intermedia (Aves, Psittacidae)". Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London (Zoology) 65: 31–50. 
  8. ^ Bull, John (1973). "Exotic Birds in the New York City Area". The Wilson Bulletin 85 (4): 501–505. 
  9. ^ Pranty, Bill and Susan Epps (2002). "Distribution, population status, and documentation of exotic parrots in Broward County, Florida". Florida Field Naturalist 30 (4): 111–131. 
  10. ^ Porter, R Simon Aspinall (2010). Birds of the Middle East. A&C Black. p. 10. 
  11. ^ Tiwari, NK (1930). "The mating of the Blossom-headed Paroquet (Psittacula cyanocephala)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 34 (1): 254–255. 
  12. ^ Fain, A.; Bochkov, A.; Mironov, S. (2000). "New genera and species of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie 70: 33–70. 
  13. ^ Bennett, GF; M. A. Peirce (1986). "Avian Haemoproteidae. 21. The haemoproteids of the parrot family Psittacidae". Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64 (3): 771–773. doi:10.1139/z86-114. 

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