Proposed Japanese invasion of Australia during World War II
In Australia, the government, the military and the people were deeply alarmed after the fall of Singapore in February 1942 about the possibility of a Japanese invasion of Australia. Japan had the military capability, and Australia lacked defenses. Japan never actually planned an invasion, but the fear of one led Australia to form a close reliance on the United States to protect itself.
Meanwhile, in Tokyo, the secret Navy proposal was opposed by the Imperial Japanese Army and Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, who regarded it as being unfeasible given Australia's geography and the strength of the Allied defences. Instead, the Japanese military adopted a strategy of isolating Australia from the United States by advancing through the South Pacific. This offensive was abandoned following the Battle of the Coral Sea and Battle of Midway in May and June 1942, and all subsequent Japanese operations in the vicinity of Australia were undertaken to slow the advance of Allied forces.
However, Japan did invade the Territory of Papua, an Australian external territory. It also invaded and occupied the Territory of New Guinea and the Territory of Nauru, which were League of Nations mandates controlled by Australia. The only present-day Australian territory occupied by the Japanese during World War II was Christmas Island, which was a British colony at the time.
Japan's success in the early months of the Pacific War led elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy to propose invading Australia. In December 1941 the Navy proposed including an invasion of Northern Australia as one of Japan's 'stage two' war objectives after South-East Asia was conquered. This proposal was most strongly pushed by Captain Sadatoshi Tomioka, the head of the Navy General Staff's Planning section, on the grounds that the United States was likely to use Australia as a base to launch a counter-offensive in the South-West Pacific. The Navy headquarters argued that this invasion could be carried out by a small landing force as this area of Australia was lightly defended and isolated from Australia's main population centres. There was not universal support for this proposal within the Navy, however, and Isoroku Yamamoto, the commander of the Combined Fleet, consistently opposed it.
The Japanese Army opposed the Navy's proposal as being impractical. The Army's focus was on defending the perimeter of Japan's conquests, and it believed that invading Australia would over-extend these defence lines. Moreover, the Army was not willing to release the large number of troops it calculated were needed for such an operation from the Kwantung Army in Manchuria as it both feared that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War and wanted to preserve an option for Japan to invade Siberia.
Prime Minister Hideki Tojo also consistently opposed invading Australia. Instead, Tojo favoured a policy of forcing Australia to submit by cutting its lines of communication with the US. In his last interview before being executed for war crimes Tojo stated that:
We never had enough troops to [invade Australia]. We had already far out-stretched our lines of communication. We did not have the armed strength or the supply facilities to mount such a terrific extension of our already over-strained and too thinly spread forces. We expected to occupy all New Guinea, to maintain Rabaul as a holding base, and to raid Northern Australia by air. But actual physical invasion—no, at no time.
In speeches before the Diet of Japan on 12 January and 16 February 1942, Tojo claimed Japanese policy was to: "eradicate the British colonies at Hong Kong and in the Malay Peninsula as these were "evil bases used against East Asia", and turn these places into strongholds for the defence of Greater East Asia. Burma and the Philippines would get independence if they co-operated with Japan; the Netherlands East Indies and Australia would be crushed if they resisted; but if they recognised Japan's true intentions would receive help in promoting their welfare and development."
The Army and Navy's calculations of the number of troops needed to invade Australia differed greatly and formed a central area of discussion. In December 1941 the Navy calculated that a force of three divisions (between 45,000 and 60,000 men) would be sufficient to secure Australia's north-eastern and north-western coastal areas. In contrast, the Army calculated that a force of at least ten divisions (between 150,000 and 250,000 men) would be needed. The Army's planners estimated that transporting this force to Australia would require 1.5 to 2 million tons of shipping, which would have required delaying the return of requisitioned merchant shipping. This invasion force would have been larger than the entire force used to conquer South-East Asia. The Army also rejected the Navy's proposal of limiting an invasion of Australia to securing enclaves in the north of the country as being unrealistic given the likely Allied counter-offensives against these positions. Due to its experience in China the Army believed that any invasion of Australia would have to involve an attempt to conquer the entire Australian continent, something which was beyond Japan's abilities.
The possibility of invading Australia was discussed by the Japanese Army and Navy on several occasions in February 1942. On 6 February the Navy Ministry formally proposed a plan in which eastern Australia would be invaded at the same time other Japanese forces captured Fiji, Samoa, and New Caledonia, and this was again rejected by the Army. On 14 February, the day before Singapore was captured, the Army and Navy sections of the Imperial General Headquarters again discussed invading Australia and during this discussion Captain Tomioka argued that it would be possible to take Australia with a "token force". This statement was labelled "so much gibberish" in the Imperial General Headquarters' secret diary. General Tomoyuki Yamashita:
He said that after he had taken Singapore, he wanted to discuss with Tojo a plan for the invasion of Australia... Tojo turned down the plan, making the excuse of lengthened supply lines, which would be precarious and open to enemy attack...
The dispute between the Army and Navy was settled in late February with a decision to isolate rather than invade Australia. The Army continued to maintain its view that invading Australia was impractical, but agreed to extend Japan's strategic perimeter and cut Australia off from the US by invading Fiji, Samoa, and New Caledonia in the so-called Operation FS. The question of whether to invade Australia was discussed by Imperial Headquarters for the last time on 27 February and in this meeting the Army stated that it believed that Australia was defended by a 600,000-strong military force. During a further meeting held on 4 March the Imperial Headquarters formally agreed to a "Fundamental Outline of Recommendations for Future War Leadership" which relegated the option of invading Australia as a "future option" only if all other plans went well. This plan was presented to the Emperor by Prime Minister Hideki Tōjō and in effect ended discussion of invading Australia. The FS Operation was not implemented, however, due to Japan's defeats in the Battle of the Coral Sea and Battle of Midway and was canceled on 11 July 1942.
Subsequent Japanese operations in the South-West Pacific
As the option of invading Australia was rejected in February 1942 and was not revisited, the Japanese attacks on Australia during the war were not precursors to invasion, as is sometimes claimed. The large air raid on Darwin on 19 February 1942 and the Attack on Broome on 3 March were conducted to prevent the Allies from using these towns as bases to contest the invasion of the Netherlands East Indies and was not related to an invasion. According to Frei:
The generals of the Army General Staff, and the Prime Minister of Japan, General Hideki Tojo, did not see a need to commit massive troop resources to the conquest of Australia, with the massive logistical problems that would produce. The generals were confident that Australia could be bullied into surrender to Japan by isolating it completely from the United States and by applying intense psychological pressure.
The dozens of subsequent air raids on Northern Australia in 1942 and 1943 were mainly small and aimed to prevent the Allied air units based there from attacking Japanese positions. The Attack on Sydney Harbour in May 1942 had the goal of diverting Allied forces away from Midway Island prior to the Japanese attempt to capture it and the subsequent Japanese submarine campaigns off the Australian east coast in 1942 and 1943 were attempts to break the supply line between Australia and New Guinea during the New Guinea Campaign. Moreover, the Japanese attempt to capture Port Moresby in New Guinea by advancing along the Kokoda Track and landing at Milne Bay between July and September 1942 aimed to capture the town to complete Japan's defensive perimeter in the region. Once secured, Port Moresby was to have been used as a base from which Japanese aircraft could dominate the Torres Strait and Coral Sea, and not to support an invasion of Australia.
A small Japanese reconnaissance unit carried out a brief landing on the Australian mainland during January 1944. Matsu Kikan ("Pine Tree"), a joint army-navy intelligence unit, landed to assess reports that the Allies had begun to build major new bases on the northernmost coast of the Kimberley region of Western Australia, facing the Timor Sea. After leaving their base at Kupang, West Timor, the unit – comprising 10 Japanese personnel in a commandeered fishing vessel crewed by West Timorese civilians – made brief visits to the uninhabited Ashmore Reef and Browse Island. On 19 January, Matsu Kikan entered York Sound on the mainland. While smoke was seen in hills to the east, the Japanese vessel was anchored and camouflaged with tree branches. Landing parties went ashore near the mouth of the Roe River. They reconnoitred the surrounding area for about two hours and filmed it with an 8 mm camera. The following day, Matsu Kikan personnel again reconnoitred the area, before returning to Kupang. Matsu Kikan did not see any signs of recent human activity, and little of military significance was learnt from the mission. An officer involved with the mission reportedly returned to Japan shortly afterward, where he suggested landing 200 Japanese convicts in Australia, to launch a guerrilla campaign. This suggestion was not, however, adopted. According to historian Peter Stanley, "No historian of standing believes the Japanese had a plan to invade Australia, there is not a skerrick of evidence."
The 1984 alternate history novel The Bush Soldiers by John Hooker depicts a successful Japanese invasion of Australia and the last-ditch resistance effort made by a handful of Australian and British troops.
- Axis victory in World War II
- Battle for Australia
- Brisbane Line
- Battle of Christmas Island
- Cocos Islands during World War II
- Operation Mo
- Stanley (2002), pg 3.
- Geoffrey Bolton, The Oxford History of Australia: Volume 5: 1942–1995. The Middle Way (2005) pp 7–10, 15
- Jeffrey Grey (1999). A Military History of Australia. Cambridge UP. pp. 171–74.
- Frei (1991), pg 162–163.
- Frei (1991), pg 168.
- Frei (1991), pg 163.
- Frei (1991), pg 172.
- Gill (1957), pg 643.
- Ken'ichi and Kratoska (2003), pg 54–55.
- Frei (1991), pg 163–165.
- Hattori (1949), pg 1.
- Bullard (2007), pg 78.
- Frei (1991), pg 165–166.
- Potter (1969).
- Frei (1991), pg 167.
- Frei (1991), pg 171.
- Frei (1991), pg 171–173.
- Stanley (2008), pg 108.
- Stanley (2008), pg 178–180.
- Stanley (2008), pg 182–185.
- Daphne Choules Edinger, 1995, "Exploring the Kimberley Coast" and; Cathie Clement, 1995, "World War II and the Kimberley" (The Kimberley Society).
- Frei (1991), p. 173.
- Frei (1991), pp. 173–4.
- Matchett (2008).
- Bullard, Steven (translator) (2007). Japanese army operations in the South Pacific Area New Britain and Papua campaigns, 1942–43. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. ISBN 978-0-9751904-8-7.
- Frei, Henry P. (1991). Japan's Southward Advance and Australia. From the Sixteenth Century to World War II. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0-522-84392-1.
- Gill, G. Hermon (1957). "Chapter 17 – Prelude to Victory" (PDF). Volume I – Royal Australian Navy, 1939–1942. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 2006-11-06.
- Hattori, Takushiro (1980) . "Statement Concerning Reasons for Opposition to Plan for Invasion of Australia". In Donald S. Detwiler. War in Asia and the Pacific. Volume 7. The Southern Area (Part II). New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8240-3291-8.
- Horner, David (1993). "Defending Australia in 1942". The Pacific War 1942. Canberra: Department of History, Australian Defence Force Academy. pp. 1–20. ISSN 0729-2473.
- Goto, Ken'ichi; Paul H. Kratoska (2003). Tensions of empire: Japan and Southeast Asia in the colonial and postcolonial world. Research in international studies Ohio University research in international studies. Volume 108. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-281-0.
- Matchett, Stephen (30 July 2008). "Get over it, we weren't at the heart of World War II". The Australian. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
- Stanley, Peter (2002). "He's (not) Coming South": the invasion that wasn't" (PDF). Conference Papers. Remembering 1942. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
- Stanley, Peter (2008). Invading Australia. Japan and the Battle for Australia, 1942. Melbourne: Penguin Group (Australia). ISBN 978-0-670-02925-9.
- "Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area, Volume II – Part I". Reports of General MacArthur. United States Army Center of Military History. 1994.
- Arnold, Anthony (2013). "A Slim Barrier: The Defence of Mainland Australia 1939-1945". PhD Thesis. University of New South Wales.
- Brown, Gary; Anderson, David (29 April 1992). "Invasion 1942? Australia and the Japanese Threat" (PDF). Canberra: Department of the Parliamentary Library. ISSN 1037-2938.
- Stanley, Peter (2007). "What is the Battle for Australia?" (PDF). Australian Army Journal. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Land Warfare Studies Centre. 4 (2). ISSN 1448-2843.