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Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Clade: Gymnophiona
Family: Rhinatrematidae
Nussbaum, 1977


Rhinatrematidae, the family of Neotropical tailed caecilians, American tailed caecilians or beaked caecilians, are found in the equatorial countries of South America.[1][2]

They are usually regarded as the most primitive of the caecilian families, with numerous characteristics lacking in the other groups. For example, they still possess tails, and their mouths are not recessed on the underside of their heads. They lay their eggs in cavities in the soil. The larvae have external gills, and live in seepage areas until they metamorphose. The adults live in moist soil and leaf litter.[3]


The 11 species in two genera are:


  1. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Rhinatrematidae Nussbaum, 1977". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  2. ^ "Rhinatrematidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  3. ^ Nussbaum, Ronald A. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G., eds. Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  4. ^ Gower et al. (2010) "A new species of Rhinatrema Duméril & Bibron (Amphibia: Gymnophiona:Rhinatrematidae) from Guyana"

Further reading[edit]

  • Nussbaum, Ronald A. and Mark Wilkinson (1989). "On the Classification and Phylogeny of Caecilians." Herpetological Monographs, (3), 1-42
  • San Mauro, Diego; David J. Gower; Oommen V. Oommen; Mark Wilkinson; Rafael Zardoya (November 2004). "Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear RAG1". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (2): 413–427. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.05.014. PMID 15336675. 
  • San Mauro, Diego; Miguel Vences; Marina Alcobendas; Rafael Zardoya; Axel Meyer (May 2005). "Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea". American Naturalist 165 (5): 590–599. 
  • San Mauro, Diego; David J. Gower; Tim Massingham; Mark Wilkinson; Rafael Zardoya; James A. Cotton (August 2009). "Experimental design in caecilian systematics: phylogenetic information of mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rag1". Systematic Biology 58 (4): 425–438. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syp043. PMID 20525595.