Road toll (Australia and New Zealand)

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Road toll in Australia, 1983 to 2008
Road toll in New Zealand, 1951 to 2008

Road toll is the term used in New Zealand and Australia for the number of deaths caused annually by road accidents.

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand reports a daily, monthly, quarterly and annual nationwide road toll[1], plus special period figures for a number of holiday periods[2]:

  • Christmas — New Year : between 4pm on 24 December (22 or 23 December if 24 December falls on a weekend) and 6am on 3 January (4 or 5 January if 1 and/or 2 January fall on a weekend or 2 January falls on a Friday).
  • Easter — from 4pm on the day before Good Friday and 6am the following Tuesday.
  • Queen's Birthday — from 4pm on the Friday before the first Monday in June to 6am the following Tuesday.
  • Labour Day|Labour Weekend — from 4pm on the Friday before the last Monday in October to 6am the following Tuesday.

The road toll includes deaths which occur within 7 days of a road accident as a result of injuries received in the accident. Deaths of pedestrians and cyclists are included, but deaths from vehicular accidents not on legal roads (e.g. on farms) are excluded.

The New Zealand road toll has exhibited a downward trend since the late 1980s through to 2010, which was attributed to a number of factors:

  • A reduction in drink driving, due to public education and strict policing.
  • Improvements in vehicle safety.
  • An increase in the wearing of seat belts due to public education
  • Hazard mitigation works on dangerous stretches of road.
  • Reduction of speed limits in some accident blackspots and areas frequented by vulnerable road users.

Recent NZ Road Toll Figures[edit]

Road toll statistics are available from as far back as 1921, when records began[3]. Here are some figures from the last few years (dashes indicate figures not published or unavailable).

Year Road deaths Fatal crashes No. of injuries
2012 308 - 12,122
2013 253 - 11,781
2014 293 - 11,219
2015 319 - 12,270
2016 327 285 12,456
2017 380 344 -

NZ Deaths per capita / per 000 vehicles[edit]

Road deaths and Injuries since 2000[4]

Year Population (000) Vehicles (000) No. of fatalities Per 100,000 population Per 10,000 vehicles No. of injuries Per 100,000 population Per 10,000 vehicles
2000 3830.8 2601.7 462 12.1 1.8 10962 286 42.1
2001 3850.1 2633.2 455 11.8 1.7 12368 321 47.0
2002 3939.1 2709.5 405 10.3 1.5 13918 353 51.4
2003 4009.2 2801.0 461 11.5 1.6 14372 359 51.3
2004 4060.9 2920.7 435 10.7 1.5 13890 342 47.6
2005 4098.3 3030.4 405 9.9 1.3 14451 353 47.7
2006 4139.5 3124.3 393 9.5 1.3 15174 367 48.6
2007 4228.3 3189.1 421 10.0 1.3 16013 379 50.2
2008 4268.6 3247.8 366 8.6 1.1 15174 356 46.7
2009 4315.8 3220.3 384 8.9 1.2 14541 337 45.2
2010 4367.8 3230.6 375 8.6 1.2 14031 321 43.4
2011 4405.3 3233.6 284 6.4 0.9 12574 285 38.9
2012 4433.0 3250.1 308 6.9 0.9 12122 273 37.3
2013 4471.1 3304.7 253 5.7 0.8 11781 264 35.6
2014 4509.9 3398.1 293 6.5 0.9 11219 249 33.0
2015 4596.7 3514.8 319 6.9 0.9 12270 267 34.9
2016 4693.0 3656.3 327 7.0 0.9 12456 265 34.1

Types of road users killed in NZ[edit]

A break down of the types of road users[5] involved in the Roald death toll since 2010 is also revealing;

Year Drivers Passengers Motor Cyclists Cyclists Pedestrians Other Total
Highest: 307(1987) 250 (1973) 146(1988) 41 (1957) 157 (1973) - -
Lowest: 49 (1952) 49 (2013) 28 (2003) 5(2016) 25 (2015/2016)
2010 180 98 50 10 36 2 375
2011 150 61 33 9 31 0 284
2012 135 82 50 8 33 0 308
2013 125 49 39 8 30 2 253
2014 127 70 43 10 43 0 293
2015 157 75 54 6 25 2 319
2016 163 78 52 5 25 4 327

Age of NZ Road Toll Deaths[edit]

The following table gives the number of Road Toll deaths by age group[6], from 2010. The total killed includes unknown aged fatalities.

Year 0-14 years 15-24 years 25-39 years 40-59 years 60+ years TOTAL
2010 18 113 76 83 85 375
2011 11 82 46 79 65 284
2012 14 62 68 78 84 308
2013 6 64 41 76 64 253
2014 13 61 66 69 81 293
2015 8 84 73 79 74 319
2016 17 82 64 93 71 327

Road Toll by NZ region[edit]

Local Body boundary changes mean that records have been kept from 1980 onwards. In November 2010, the Auckland Super City was established. The figures have been altered for Auckland and other regions to allow for this development[7].

REGION Lowest Total Highest Total 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Northland 7 2011 54 1989 18 21 18 23 27
Auckland 36 2014 197 1987 41 48 36 52 46
Waikato 33 2013 141 1991 65 33 48 69 79
Bay of Plenty 18 2013 70 1987 23 18 30 29 31
Gisborne / Hawke’s Bay 10 2013 64 1986 31 10 19 15 16
Taranaki 7 2013 45 1991 17 7 11 8 12
Manawatu/Wanganui 15 2013 81 1987 29 15 34 28 16
Wellington 10 2015 71 1987 11 18 12 10 16
Nelson / Marlborough 5 2015 27 1984 9 9 7 5 10
West Coast 3 1996 18 2001 7 9 9 7 4
Canterbury 32 2009 96 1989 33 49 38 47 34
Otago 11 2009 43 1988 17 14 19 18 20
Southland 2 2013 25 1984 7 2 12 8 16

Tourist Road Toll in New Zealand[edit]

Overseas licence holders are involved in just over 6 percent of fatal and injury crashes[8]. In 2016 overseas drivers (those with an overseas drivers licence) were involved in 24 fatal traffic crashes, 114 serious injury crashes and 506 minor injury crashes. In comparison, in total in New Zealand in 2016, there were 286 fatal crashes, 2,099 serious injury crashes and 7,583 minor injury crashes.[9]. Over the five years from 2012-2016, 6.2 percent of fatal and injury crashes involved an overseas driver. Over the same period, 4.1 percent of all drivers involved in crashes were overseas drivers.

Australia[edit]

In Australia the road toll is reported at a state level. Similar to New Zealand, Australia also reports national figures for special holidays, though usually only for the Christmas and Easter holiday periods.

In 2010, 1367 people lost their lives in road traffic crashes in Australia.[10] While strategies to reduce road toll, including legislation, improvements to vehicle’s which help to make them safer, and educational programs have been developed by the national government, under the 1992 Road Safety Strategy, it is up to the local governments to adopt and enforce these policies.[11] The state of Victoria has implemented several initiatives such as speed camera, random alcohol breath tests, and an integrated state trauma system, which have successfully reduced the number of deaths caused by road traffic crashes.[12]

Random breath testing (“RBT”), utilized throughout Australia, differs from the sobriety check-points commonly used in other countries. In Australia, random breath testing is accomplished by setting up a highly visible road block, wherein all drivers passing through are asked to take an alcohol breath test, regardless of whether there is any cause to believe the driver has been drinking.[13] RBT was shown to reduce alcohol related road toll by 8–71% in fourteen different studies reviewed by Dr. Corinne Peek-Asa.[14] Requiring motorists and passengers to wear seat belts appears to have reduced the road toll in Australia.[15].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  2. ^ "Holiday road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  3. ^ "Historical Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  4. ^ "Historical Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  5. ^ "Historical Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  6. ^ "Historical Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  7. ^ "Historical Road crash statistics NZ Govenment". Ministry of Transport, New Zealand. 
  8. ^ Overseas drivers in crashes
  9. ^ NZ Transport Overseas Driver Fatalities Page 3 of PDF)
  10. ^ "Accidents Injuries and Fatalities: Transport Related Deaths". 1301.0 – Year Book Australia (2012). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  11. ^ "Vehicle Collisions in Australia". NSW Compensation Lawyers. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 
  12. ^ Atkin, C; Freedman, I; Rosenfeld, J; Fitzgerald, M; Kossmann, T (November 2005). The evolution of an integrated state trauma system in Victoria, Australia. Injury. 36. pp. 1277–87. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2005.05.011. PMID 16214472. 
  13. ^ Homel, R (1990). "Random Breath Testing and Random Stopping Programs in Australia" (PDF). In Wilson, R.J.; Mann, R.E. Drinking and Driving: Advances in Research and Prevention (PDF). Guilford Press. ISBN 0898621704. 
  14. ^ Peek-Asa, C (January 1999). "The Effect of Random Alcohol Screening in Reducing Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries". American Journal of Preventative Medicine. 16 (1): 57–67. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00116-0. 
  15. ^ Bhattacharyya, M; Layton, A (1979). "Effectiveness of Seat Belt Legislation on the Queensland Road Toll — An Australian Case Study in Intervention Analysis". Journal of the American Statistical Association. 74 (367): 596–603. doi:10.1080/01621459.1979.10481655. 

External links[edit]