Romanism was a derogatory term for Roman Catholicism in the past when anti-Catholicism was more common in the United States and the United Kingdom. Today the term is normally used to designate Roman Catholicism. See Romanist.
The term was frequently used in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century Republican invectives against the Democrats, as part of the slogan "Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion" (referencing the Democratic party's constituency of Southerners and anti-Temperance, frequently Catholic, working-class immigrants). The term and slogan gained particular prominence in the 1884 presidential campaign and again in 1928, in which the Democratic candidate was the outspokenly anti-Prohibition Catholic Governor of New York Al Smith.
- Dowling, John (1845). The History of Romanism: from the Earliest Corruptions of Christianity to the Present Time (fourth ed.). E. Walker. pp. –2.
- Is Romanism Christianity? (1917) by T.W. Medhurst (from The Fundamentals)
- Romanism and the Reformation (1881) by Henry Grattan Guinness
- The Bible and Romanism – the window-dressing continues (2000), by Arthur Noble
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