Doctor of Juridical Science
Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of the Science of Law, (in Latin) Scientiae Juridicae Doctor or Juridicae Scientiae Doctor (sometimes also referred to as a Doctor of Laws), abbreviated S.J.D. or J.S.D., respectively, is a research doctorate in law equivalent to the more commonly awarded research doctorate, the Ph.D. It is offered primarily in the United States (where it originated), and in Canada and Australia. As a research doctorate, it follows professional training in law (LL.B. or J.D.) and the first graduate degree in law (Master of Laws). It is primarily aimed at educating professors, legal scientists, and other scholars in law.
The J.S.D., or S.J.D. is a research doctorate, and as such it is generally accepted as equivalent to the more commonly awarded research doctorate, the Ph.D. It is considered the "most advanced law degree" by Duke Law School, Berkeley Law, Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, George Washington University Law School, New York University, Stanford Law,, UCLA, and University of Arizona College of Law. According to Indiana University it is the “terminal degree in law". The National Association of Legal Professionals states that the J.S.D./S.J.D. is "the most advanced (or terminal) law degree that would follow the earning of the J.D. and LL.M. degrees."
Applicants for the program must have outstanding academic credentials. A first degree in law (such as a J.D. or LL.B.) is required, as well as an LL.M.. Exceptions as to the latter condition (i.e. holding an LL.M.) are seldom—if ever—granted.
The J.S.D. typically requires three to five years to complete. The program begins with a combination of required and elective coursework. Then, upon passage of the oral exam, the student advances to doctoral candidacy. Completion of the program requires a dissertation, which serves as an original contribution to the scholarly field of law.
Notable recipients of the degree of Doctor of Juridical Science include:
- Sang-Hyun Song (Cornell Law School, 1970), President of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
- Harvey L. Strelzin (New York U., 1906), New York State Assembly member and professor at New York U.
- Charles Hamilton Houston (Harvard, 1923), prominent civil rights attorney
- Lowell Turrentine (Harvard, 1929), prominent professor of law at Stanford University
- Justice Bernard Jefferson (Harvard, 1934), renowned legal scholar and appellate court
- Pauli Murray (Yale, 1965), prominent civil rights advocate
- Ayala Procaccia (University of Pennsylvania, 1972), Israel Supreme Court Justice
- John Cencich (Notre Dame Law School, 2008), Professor and former senior United Nations war crimes investigator at The Hague.
- Christos Rozakis (University of Illinois, 1973) (President of the Administrative Tribunal of the Council of Europe and former vice-president of the European Court of Human Rights
- Ma Ying-jeou (Harvard, 1980), President of the Republic of China
- Theodor Meron (Harvard Law School), professor of law (New York University) and president of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
- Hanoch Dagan, (Yale Law School, 1993), Stewart and Judy Colton Professor of Legal Theory and Innovation and former Dean of Tel Aviv University Faculty of Law, Justin D'Atri Visiting Professor of Law at Columbia University
- Katherine Franke (Yale Law School, 1998), Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Professor of Law; Director, Center for Gender and Sexuality Law at Columbia University
- W. Michael Reisman (Yale Law School 1965), Myres S. McDougal Professor of International Law at Yale Law School
- Lucian Bebchuk (Harvard Law School 1984), William J. Friedman and Alicia Townsend Friedman Professor of Law, Economics, and Finance Director, Program on Corporate Governance, Harvard Law School.
- Doctor of Law
- Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws) (LL.D.)
- Juris Doctor (J.D.)
- Master of Laws (LL.M.)
- Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.)
- Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.)
Notes and references
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- "LL.M. and S.J.D. Programs, Graduate Studies in Law". Law.virginia.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Doctorate document[dead link] at US Dept. of Education
- "S.J.D. Program". law.duke.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- "J.S.D. Program". law.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "S.J.D. Courses & Academics". Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Yale Law School | Contact the Graduate Programs Office". Law.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- The George Washington University Law School. "Doctor of Juridical Science | GW Law | The George Washington University". law.gwu.edu. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- "NYU Law – LL.M. & J.S.D.: J.S.D. Program". Law.nyu.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Stanford Law School. "Doctor of Science of Law (JSD) | Stanford Law School". Law.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Arizona Law Overview | College of Law". law.arizona.edu. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- "S.J.D. Degree". Indylaw.indiana.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
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- "SJD Degree". law.duke.edu. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Doctor of Juridical Science Degree". Law.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Georgetown Law – Doctor of Juridical Science (Admissions)". Law.georgetown.edu. 21 September 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) Requirements". Law.duke.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Tulane Law School Prospective Students". Law.tulane.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Press Release Archives #417-97 Leg. creating Harvey L. Strelzin Street". Nyc.gov. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Charles Hamilton Houston legal definition of Charles Hamilton Houston. Charles Hamilton Houston synonyms by the Free Online Law Dictionary". Legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com. 22 April 1950. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Lowell Turrentine, retired Stanford law school professor, dead at 96". News.stanford.edu. 26 January 1988. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Justice Jefferson Remembered as Soft-Spoken Legal Giant". Metnews.com. 29 June 1910. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- Yardley, Jonathan (7 May 1987). "A Woman's Triumphs In a Fight for Justice". Newsday. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
- "Login | Columbia Law School". law.columbia.edu. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "Katherine Franke | Faculty | Columbia Law School". law.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- "W. Michael Reisman - Yale Law School". law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
- Harvard Law School. "Lucian A. Bebchuk | Harvard Law School". hls.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2 September 2016.