Sadistic personality disorder
|Sadistic personality disorder|
|Illustration showing the pleasure that sadistic people often have from hurting someone|
|Specialty||Psychiatry, clinical psychology|
|Symptoms||cruelty, manipulation using fear, preoccupation with violence|
|Risk factors||Childhood abuse|
|Differential diagnosis||Psychopathy, Antisocial personality disorder, other cluster B personality disorders|
|Cluster A (odd)|
|Cluster B (dramatic)|
|Cluster C (anxious)|
|Not otherwise specified|
Sadistic personality disorder is a personality disorder involving sadomasochism which appeared in an appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R). The later versions of the DSM (DSM-IV, DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5) do not include it.
Sadism involves deriving pleasure through others undergoing discomfort or pain. The opponent-process theory is one way to help explain how an individual may come to not only display, but also enjoy committing sadistic acts. Individuals possessing sadistic personalities tend to display recurrent aggression and cruel behavior. Sadism can also include the use of emotional cruelty, purposefully manipulating others through the use of fear, and a preoccupation with violence.
|Spineless sadism||Including avoidant features||Insecure, bogus, and cowardly; venomous dominance and cruelty is counterphobic; weakness counteracted by group support; public swaggering; selects powerless scapegoats.|
|Tyrannical sadism||Including negativistic features||Relishes menacing and brutalizing others, forcing them to cower and submit; verbally cutting and scathing, accusatory and destructive; intentionally surly, abusive, inhumane, unmerciful.|
|Enforcing sadism||Including compulsive features||Hostility sublimated in the "public interest," cops, "bossy" supervisors, deans, judges; possesses the "right" to be pitiless, merciless, coarse, and barbarous; task is to control and punish, to search out rule breakers.|
|Explosive sadism||Including borderline features||Unpredictably precipitous outbursts and fury; uncontrollable rage and fearsome attacks; feelings of humiliation are pent-up and discharged; subsequently contrite.|
Comorbidity with other personality disorders
Sadistic personality disorder has been found to occur frequently in unison with other personality disorders. Studies have also found that sadistic personality disorder is the personality disorder with the highest level of comorbidity to other types of psychopathological disorders. In contrast, sadism has also been found in patients who do not display any or other forms of psychopathic disorders. One personality disorder that is often found to occur alongside sadistic personality disorder is conduct disorder, not an adult disorder but one of childhood and adolescence. Studies have found other types of illnesses, such as alcoholism, to have a high rate of comorbidity with sadistic personality disorder.
Researchers have had some level of difficulty distinguishing sadistic personality disorder from other forms of personality disorders due to its high level of comorbidity with other disorders.
Removal from the DSM
Numerous theorists and clinicians introduced sadistic personality disorder to the DSM in 1987 and it was placed in the DSM-III-R as a way to facilitate further systematic clinical study and research. It was proposed to be included because of adults who possessed sadistic personality traits but were not being labeled, even though their victims were being labeled with a self-defeating personality disorder. Theorists like Theodore Millon wanted to generate further study on SPD, and so proposed it to the DSM-IV Personality Disorder Work Group, who rejected it. Millon writes that "Physically abusive, sadistic personalities are most often male, and it was felt that any such diagnosis might have the paradoxical effect of legally excusing cruel behavior."
Sub-clinical sadism in personality psychology
There is renewed interest in studying sadism as a personality trait. Sadism joins with subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism to form the so-called "dark tetrad" of personality.
- Antisocial personality disorder, a personality disorder characterized by a long term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others
- Evil Genes
- Malignant narcissism
- Sadism and masochism
- Self-defeating personality disorder (masochistic personality disorder)
- Sexual sadism disorder
- Hucker, Stephen J. Sadistic Personality Disorder
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- Chabrol, Henri; Van Leeuwen, Nikki; Rodgers, Rachel; Séjourné, Natalène (2009). "Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency". Personality and Individual Differences. 47 (7): 734–739. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020.
- Buckels, E. E.; Jones, D. N.; Paulhus, D. L. (2013). "Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism". Psychological Science. 24 (11): 2201–9. doi:10.1177/0956797613490749. PMID 24022650.
- "Sadistic Personality Disorder and Comorbid Mental Illness in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients". Jaapl.org. 2006-01-01. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
- Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond, p. 482
- Theodore Millon; Carrie M. Millon; Sarah Meagher (June 12, 2012). Personality Disorders in Modern Life. Seth Grossman, Rowena Ramnath. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 512–515. ISBN 978-1-118-42881-8.
- Million, Theodore, D.Sc. "Personality Subtypes: Sadistic Personality Subtypes". Institute for Advanced Studies in Personology and Psychopathology. Archived from the original on 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2015-05-17.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "The Sadistic Personality, Variations of the Sadistic Personality". Archived from the original on 2018-06-17. Retrieved 2018-09-22. ALPF Medical Research
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- Reidy; Zeichner; Seibert (2011). "Unprovoked Aggression: Effects of Psychopathic Traits and Sadism". Journal of Personality. 79 (1): 75–100. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00691.x. PMID 21223265.
- Reich, James (1993). "Prevalence and characteristics of sadistic personality disorder in an outpatient veterans population". Psychiatry Research. 48 (3): 267–276. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(93)90077-T. PMID 8272448.
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- Personality Disorders in Modern Life 2nd Ed. p.512.
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- Chabrol H.; Van Leeuwen, N.; Rodgers, R. & Sejourne, N. (2009). "Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency". Personality and Individual Differences. 47 (7): 734–739. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020. Archived from the original on 2019-01-10. Retrieved 2016-08-14.
- Blaney, P. H., Millon, T. (2009). Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Davis, R., Millon, T. (2000). Personality Disorders in Modern Life. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Livesley, J. (1995). The dsm-iv personality disorders. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?id=9AqPs9ootqoC&pg=PA329
- Million, T. (1996). Disorders of Personality DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: Wiley-Interscience Publication.
- Myers W.C.; Burket R.C.; Husted D.S. (2006). "Sadistic personality disorder and comorbid mental illness in adolescent psychiatric inpatients". Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online. 34 (1): 61–71. PMID 16585236. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15.
- Pacana, G. (2011, March 2). Sadists and sadistic personality disorder.
- Reich J (1992). "Prevalence and characteristics of sadistic personality disorder in an outpatient veterans population". Psychiatry Research. 48 (3): 267–276. doi:10.1016/0165-1781(93)90077-t. PMID 8272448.
- "Provisional Psychological Profile of Washington, D.C.-Area Sniper" provides some excellent theoretical descriptions of the sadistic personality, which, in addition to being a "white man", were traits concluded by the author to describe the D.C. sniper attacks shooter.