Season of the Emergence

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O1
D21
X1
N5
Season of Emergence[1][a]
(Prt)
in hieroglyphs

The Season of the Emergence (Egyptian: Prt) was the second season of the lunar and civil Egyptian calendars. It fell after the Season of the Inundation (Ꜣḫt) and before the Season of the Harvest (Šmw).[1]

Names[edit]

The pronunciation of the Ancient Egyptian name for the Season of the Emergence is uncertain as the hieroglyphs do not record its vowels. It is conventionally transliterated Peret[3][2] or Proyet.[citation needed] The name refers to the emergence of the fertile land beside the Nile from its annual flood and to the growth of vegetation and crops over the following season.

It is also known as Winter.[2]

Lunar calendar[edit]

In the lunar calendar, the intercalary month was added as needed to maintain the heliacal rising of Sirius in the fourth month of the season of the Harvest. This meant that the Season of the Emergence usually lasted from January to May.[4] Because the precise timing of the flood varied, the months of "Emergence" no longer precisely reflected the state of the river but the season was usually the time for the planting and growth of Egyptian grain.

Civil calendar[edit]

In the civil calendar, the lack of leap years into the Ptolemaic and Roman periods meant the season lost about one day every four years and was not stable relative to the solar year or Gregorian calendar.

Months[edit]

The Season of the Emergence was divided into four months. In the lunar calendar, each began on a dawn when the waning crescent moon was no longer visible. In the civil calendar, each consisted of exactly 30 days[5] divided into three 10-day weeks known as decans.

In ancient Egypt, these months were usually recorded by their number within the season: I, II, III, and IV Prt. They were also known by the names of their principal festivals, which came to be increasingly used after the Persian occupation. These then became the basis for the names of the months of the Coptic calendar.

Egyptian Coptic
Transliteration Meaning
I Prt
Sf Bdt
First Month of Emergence
 
Tobi
II Prt
Mḫr
Second Month of Emergence
 
Meshir
III Prt
Rh Nds
Third Month of Emergence
 
Paremhat
IV Prt
Rnwt
Fourth Month of Emergence
 
Paremoude

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alternative representations of the Season of Emergence include
    O1
    D21
    ,
    O1 X1
    ,
    O1 X1
    N5
    ,
    O1 Z5
    and
    O1 Z5 Z5
    [2] and
    pr
    r
    V12
    N5
    and
    O1
    D21
    N31
    D54
    N36
    D54 t
    .[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Clagett, Marshall (1995), Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book, Vol. II: Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy, Memoirs of the APS, No. 214, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, p. 5 .
  2. ^ a b c Vygus, Mark (2015), Middle Egyptian Dictionary (PDF) .
  3. ^ Strudwick, Nigel C. (2005), Texts from the Pyramid Age, p. 103 .
  4. ^ Silverman, David P. (1997), Ancient Egypt, London: Duncan Baird Publishers, p. 93 .
  5. ^ Allen, James P. (2000), Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 103–106 .
Preceded by
Season of the Inundation
Ꜣḫt
Egyptian Seasons
Season of the Emergence
Prt

days: 120 days
Succeeded by
Season of the Harvest
Šmw