The heliacal rising (//, hi-LY-ə-kəl) of a star occurs annually when it first becomes visible above the eastern horizon for a brief moment just before sunrise, after a period of time when it had not been visible.
Relative to the stars, the sun appears to drift eastward about one degree per day along a path called the ecliptic. While the sun is moving past a given star, the star cannot be seen because it is only above the horizon during the day. The heliacal rising occurs when the sun has moved far enough past the star that the star rises and becomes visible before the sun rises in the morning. Each day after the heliacal rising, the star will rise slightly earlier and remain visible for longer before the light from the rising sun overwhelms it. Over the following days the star will move further and further westward (about one degree per day) relative to the sun, until eventually it is no longer visible in the sky at sunrise because it has already set below the western horizon. This is called the cosmical setting. The same star will reappear in the eastern sky at dawn approximately one year after its previous heliacal rising. Because the heliacal rising depends on the observation of the object, its exact timing can be dependent on weather conditions.
Some stars, when viewed from a particular latitude on Earth, do not rise or set. These are circumpolar stars, which are either always in the sky, or never. For example, the North Star is not visible in Australia and the Southern Cross is not seen in Europe, because they always stay below the respective horizons.
Constellations containing stars that rise and set were incorporated into early calendars or zodiacs. The ancient Egyptian calendar was based on the heliacal rising of Sirius. The ancient Egyptians devised a method of telling the time at night based on the heliacal risings of 36 stars called decan stars (one for each 10° segment of the 360° circle of the zodiac/calendar). The Sumerians, the Babylonians, and the ancient Greeks also used the heliacal risings of various stars for the timing of agricultural activities.
To the Māori of New Zealand, the Pleiades are called Matariki, and their heliacal rising signifies the beginning of the new year (around June). The Mapuche of South America called the Pleiades Ngauponi which in the vicinity of the we tripantu (Mapuche new year) will disappear by the west, lafkenmapu or ngulumapu, appearing at dawn to the East, a few days before the birth of new life in nature. Heliacal rising of Ngauponi, i.e. appearance of the Pleiades by the horizon over an hour before the Sun approximately 12 days before the winter solstice, announced we tripantu.
When a planet has a heliacal rising, there is a conjunction with the sun beforehand. Depending on the type of conjunction, there may be a syzygy, eclipse, transit, or occultation of the sun. The Moon's heliacal rising (a.k.a. the new moon) often determines the start of a month in a lunar calendar, which may have religious or political significance.
The corresponding rising of a celestial body above the eastern horizon at sunset is called its acronychal rising, which for a planet signifies a solar opposition in astrology, another type of syzygy. If the moon has an acronychal rising, it is usually a full moon or potentially a lunar eclipse.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Heliacal.|