Electric unicycle

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An electric unicycle (generally abbreviated as EUC[citation needed]) is a self-balancing personal transporter with a single wheel. The rider controls the speed by leaning forwards or backwards, and steers by twisting the unit using their feet. The self-balancing mechanism uses gyroscopes and accelerometers in a similar way to that used by the Segway PT.


Most commercial units are self-balancing in the direction of travel only (single axis) with lateral stability being provided by the rider; more complex fully self-balancing dual-axis devices also need to self-balance from side to side. The control mechanisms of both use control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels and/or auxiliary pendulums and can be considered to be inverted pendulum.[citation needed]

As the wheel is large (in comparison with others, say, kick scooters) and because the tire is inflatable, it is possible to jump onto curbs.[1][2]


Trevor Blackwell demonstrates his prototype

Early experimentation[edit]

See also Monowheel

A hand-power monowheel was patented in 1869 by Richard C. Hemming[3] with a pedal-power unit patented in 1885.[4] Various motorized monowheels were developed and demonstrated during the 1930s without commercial success[5] and Charles F Taylor was granted a patent for a "vehicle having a single supporting and driving wheel" in 1964 after some 25 years of experimentation.[6]


In 2003, Bombardier announced a conceptual design for such a device used as a sport vehicle, the Embrio.[7] In September 2004 Trevor Blackwell demonstrated a functional self-balancing unicycle, using the control-mechanism similar to that used by the Segway PT and published the designs as the Eunicycle.[8] In November 2006 Janick and Marc Simeray filed a US patent for a compact seatless device,[9]. In 2008 RYNO Motors demonstrated their prototype unit.[10] In January 2009 Focus Designs demonstrates electric unicycle to Segway inventor.[11] In March 2010 Shane Chen of Inventist filed a patent application for a seatless electric unicycle (associated with the "Solowheel" product launched in February 2011[12]). In Oct 2010 Focus Designs published a video of an electric unicycle with hub motor and a seat.[13]

Late in 2015, the Ford Motor Company patented a "self-propelled unicycle engagable with vehicle", intended for last-mile commuters.[14]

Popular culture[edit]



See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Learn how to do a rolling jump on a unicycle". YouTube. 2018-03-24.
  2. ^ "How to Jump with ANY Electric Unicycle". YouTube. 2019-07-10.
  3. ^ Improvement in velocipede, 1869
  4. ^ US Patent 325,548
  5. ^ "One-wheeled motorcycles: As cool as they are wildly dangerous". Wired. 24 March 2014.
  6. ^ US Patent 3,145,797
  7. ^ "Hot Wheel". Forbes.
  8. ^ "Journal entry for 25 September 2004". Live Journal. 25 September 2004.
  9. ^ US patent 6,616,313 Motorized transport vehicle for a pedestrian
  10. ^ "A brief history of the RYNO". RYNO.
  11. ^ "SBU meet the Segway | Self-Balancing Unicycle | Focus Designs, Inc". focusdesigns.com. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  12. ^ "Solowheel self-balancing unicycle is as easy to ride as it is to afford". Wngadget. 2011-02-11.
  13. ^ focusdesigns (2010-10-11), Self Balancing Unicycle (SBU) V2.0, retrieved 2018-10-07
  14. ^ Read, Richard (December 29, 2015). "Ford Patent Could Transform Your Car Into A Unicycle". The Car Connection. Internet Brns Automotive Group. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  15. ^ ANALOG — Science Fiction/Science Fact, Vol. LXXXIII, No. 5, July 1969, pp. 120-151. Illustrations by Peter Skirka.
  16. ^ "Little Wheel - game at". Fastgames.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  17. ^ "SBU testing has begun… | Self-Balancing Unicycle | Focus Designs, Inc". focusdesigns.com. Retrieved 2018-10-07.
  18. ^ Solowheel
  19. ^ http://no-en.segway.com/about-us-(1)
  20. ^ https://www.ninebot.cn/
  21. ^ httpswww.inmotionworld.comcompanywho-we-are
  22. ^ httpswww.kingsong.comlist-13.html

Further reading[edit]

Research papers (in reverse date order)